please dont rip this site

IO Serial X10 X10.TXT

Subject: here is the file for X10 (to put on your site)
Date: Friday, June 04, 1999 6:25 AM

OK....here is the rather unorganized, but in chronological order of the X10
stuff I have kept.
You might want to clean up the formatting some...?

I appreciate your offer to put on your site, as I know that many are not
interested and would
hate to have to download.


------------------------------------------ cut here
--------------------------------------------



I'm sure hoping code is available.  This seems like such a natural
thing to do for a microcontroller project (given the prices of much
of the more versatile home automation stuff) that I hadn't really
considered the possibility that it hadn't been done yet.

A quick web search finds at least one page selling PIC X10 code
and power line interfaces:

http://users1.ee.net/web_surf/Mchip.htm

Also the PIC C compiler from CCS for the MicroChip PIC16 processors
includes software drivers for X10 (and a whole load of other stuff) for $99

http://ccsinfo.com/picc.html

So, apparently this is not an uncommon application.  Anybody know of
any free X10 code or power line interfaces?




You may want to look at http://www.x10.com/products/x10_tw523.htm

The TW523 module connects to the wall - all you need to do is
provide
the data with the correct timing (TX and RX).  This device frees
you from
having to deal with the AC line (hazardous).  Somewhere on that
page there is
link to a PDF file that describes the device in detail, including
timing, etc.
As I recall, there may have also been a schematic.



       Try using ST7537 or TDA5051 (better) instead of X10. It´s safer,
allows
bigger systems, and cheaper.


 have now added a PIC resources page to my home page.  Most of it is
directly related to home automation.

Look at http://www.xs4all.nl/~falstaff/ihome.html or
        http://www.xs4all.nl/~falstaff/picres.html




The basic stamp 2 has built in BSR module controller commands,  I See in
home automation catalogs a module with a 4 pin phone type connector made to
interface the signals to the power lines.  look at
http://www.micromint.com/plix.html they sell a custom IC that does it all
for you....


 don't know if this was mentioned before but a new protocol is
emerging called CEBus. This is supposed to handle things like home
automation using many transmission mediums including power lines. I
don't know if anything is available yet.

Try

http://www.intellon.com

http://www.cebus.org

http://www.hometoys.com





I have uploaded to SimTel, the Coast to Coast Software Repository (tm),
(available by anonymous ftp from ftp.coast.net and other SimTel mirrors):

http://www.coast.net/SimTel/msdos/x_10.html
irdc240.zip    Send commands to a ONE FOR ALL Remote Control

IRDC - INFRA-RED Direct Control-Version 2.40. Control your ONE-FOR-ALL
(Supported Models: URC2005, URC4000, URC4005, URC4050, URC5000, URC6050)  
remote control from your PC. Full screen Point & Click DOS character
interface. Your PC screen becomes a large remote keypad. This shareware
version will run with or without a ONE-FOR-ALL remote control & special
serial cable (the cable can be ordered from Home Automation Dealers).
IRDC when used with an I/R extender(eg.X-10 Powermid) is an inexpensive  
way to automate I/R signal distribution.  Includes IRDQ, a command line
version.  CIS Reg. ID# 1449.  PsL Program #14461.  Uploaded by Author.     

Special requirements: ONE FOR ALL Remote Control & Special Serial Cable
Changes: Support for upgraded URC-4050 chipsets added.
Replaces: irdc220.zip

ShareWare.  Uploaded by the author.
David Huras
davidhuras@inforamp.net                              



>If you just need to send a simple RUT or on/off via the
>powerline - no data, etc, why not just modulate the 60cycle
>with some tone.  Use a tone decoder at the other end.  You'll
>need a transformer and associated parts for isolation and
>filtering.

Best way is to use LM1893 from National Semiconductor. It include Power
stage, FM modulator / Demodulator, limiter and auto-level setup to receive.
This circuit is specially design to do such transmission through AC power
line. It's old enought to be available anywhere.



>I have looked at the PLIX controller and TW-523 interface. They seem
>to solve my problem, yet they are very expensive. Over $100 for
>2 of each device.

The list price for a TW523 is $30 US.
Contact Worthington Distribution
Talk to Richard (Tell him I sent you) and he will sell you one for $18

The unit comes with a good description of the X10 protocol.
It is quite slow.  About 1 second to send each message.
The TW523 does not allow arbitrary messages to be received, they must
conform to the protocol exactly.



I tried the NE5050N a couple of years ago and it worked just fine to
transmitt serial data on the mains (managed to go up to 1200 bps) but
I also suggest you take a closer look at SGS-Thomson's ST7536 and the
newer ST7537HS1 Power Line Modems, ST7537HS1 is capable to transmitt
at 2400 bps.



Have you concidered using a Power Line Modem like the NE5050N. This
device cost about 10 dollars (from a Swedish pricelist). You can
transmit any binary serial datastream up to 300 kbit/s over a
twisted pair cable and typical 1 kbit/s over a mains wire (with the
suggested circuit). To make it work, you have to buy the NE5050N
and a few discrete components like coils, a simple mains separating
transformer, a current generator (matched transistor pair) and
the usual components, resitors, capacitors ...



Before you get lulled into the novelty of homebrew device control,
Please take a long and healthy look at the strategy for 'Networking'
your PIC nodes.  How will you manage the address of each node?  Will
they be grouped or segmented?  How will they get
'broadcast-to-all/group' system updates from host?  How will you handle
the shifting priorities of arising emergency conditions?  How will the
system & network handle accidental collisions of data on the network.
Each PIC node unit will need to do the device control and manage
network comm protocol.  You may want to use an LSI chip to handle
network overhead.  How will you load sfwr changes to the node MCUs and
call/schedule their data feeds to the host?  Can nodes
exchange/share/control devices by interacting between themselves?  How
will the host moderate/assign such 'distributed processing'?

Good reading is the Byte & Circuit Cellar Ink magazine articles on the
development of Home Control System by Steve Ciarcia.  His ongoing
discussion of path choices will save you from reinventing the wheel.
Also get info on LON-Local Operating Network and CEBus.  Then you can
better establish the architecture of your system





;***************************************

;           READ.ME FILE FOR           ;

;     LIBRARY OF UTILITIES FOR PIC     ;

;         EDWARD CHEUNG, PH.D.         ;

;         14505 DOLBROOK LANE          ;

;       MITCHELLVILLE, MD 20721        ;

;     ebc714@rs710.gsfc.nasa.gov       ;

;***************************************



Introduction

  This library of utilities was written for the 16C71 microcontroller,

but can be adapted for use on other PIC chips.  The library is fully

interrupt based: sending and receiving of data in various formats occurs

in the background using interrupts.  The 'main' program just sets some

variables and calls the appropriate routine.  The data will be sent

in the background at the proper rate and time.

  The included demo.asm program runs a simple RS232 controlled Infra Red

remote with LCD display.  See the end if this file for more info.



General Description

  The functions that interface to each type of hardware are arranged into 

modules.  Each of these modules can be disabled or enabled at the top

of the main program (see demo.asm) in order to include only those that

you need for the particular PIC that you are using.

  Being a first time assembly programmer, I wrote the code in C, which is

then hand compiled to PIC mnemonics.  The C code is included at the end

of each line, allowing me to quickly read a section to find out what the

code does.  It also made debugging a lot easier because I could follow

the program flow (if - then - else - else etc.).

  My naming convention is to add three common characters to all labels

and function names in a module.  For example, all names in the RS232 module

start with R2_, all of those in the IR module starts with IR_.  This is in 

order to facilitate the reading of my code.

  As mentioned above when you want to send data (IR,RS232 etc) you call

the appropriate routine in the associated module.  For example, to send

a character down the RS232 line, you call R2_SEND.  This is then placed

into a FIFO, and then sent according to the correct timing.  If the 

FIFO is full, the function will wait until there is a spot open in the

FIFO before returning to the main program.  

  Whenever new data is received, the function XX_NEW is called (where 

XX is the module abbreviation).  Look for these functions

in the lib.h file.  In these functions is where you add your code to do 

the processing of new incoming data.

Currently incoming data is either sent to the LCD display or the RS232

line.  Specifically, incoming data is processed as follows:

Incoming data  Displayed on    Comments

   RS232          RS232          Typing characters to PIC causes simple echo

   RS422          RS422          Typing characters to PIC causes simple echo

   IR             LCD            Displays device and key code of IR command

   X-10           LCD            Displays house and unit code of command

By customizing R2_NEW_BYTE, IR_NEW, TW_NEW etc. you can tailor the response

to incoming data.

  I have written some memory management routines that automatically 

assign register locations to variables.  Here is an example.  To allocate 

a register location to the variable TEMP_W, and TEMP_STAT, you use the 

syntax:

ALLOC       TEMP_W

ALLOC       TEMP_STAT

Since this is the first ALLOC statement, TEMP_W is assigned the register

0CH, and TEMP_STAT is assigned the location 0DH.  You can continue to do

this for all your variables until you run out of memory.  When this occurs,

the compiler will hit the statement:

CALL      OUT_OF_MEMORY

This is a dummy call, and will cause an error message with the words

OUT_OF_MEMORY.  When you see this, you know that you have run out of RAM.

The above mechanism allows you to enable and disable modules and have the

memory locations be allocated efficiently.  In other words, you can

have a PIC with just the RS232 module enabled, and expand the FIFO to

use as much RAM as possible.

  Don't forget to set the variables FXTAL and INTSEC at the top of the

lib.h file.  The former is your clock frequency, the latter is the 

desired number of interrupts/second.



Bugs

  As mentioned above, to send something, you just set some variables,

and call the appropriate routine.  If the send queue is full, the routine

has to wait until the interrupt handler empties a spot.  The problem occurs

when the interrupt handler itself needs to send data.  If the queue is

full, the microprocessor will hang (since the queue will never empty).  In

that case, the watchdog timer will timeout, and the chip resets.

  The above problem can occur especially with the IR and X-10 modules. 

Their send queues are only one command deep (due to limited memory on PICs).

You must be careful not to send too many commands per second.

  One way to prevent the watchdog from timing out is to write a second

version of the send initiate routine--one that is called by the interrupt

service routine only.  This version does not wait until the queue has an

open spot, but returns immediately.  With or without this second version

of the send routine, data is lost anyway.  This situation can be properly

remedied by allocated more memory to their send routines and writing 

larger FIFOs for them.



Modification History.

  See lib.h for mod history.



Circuit Connection for 16C71

  I am working on a circuit schematic.  In any case, the circuit is simple

enough that you can wire it up with the info below.

1  (X-10)  TW523 data output (see Note 1)

2  (IR)    input (see Note 4)

3  (IR)    output

4  +5 Volt (Mclr)

5  Ground

6  (LCD)   DB4 (see Note 2)

7  (LCD)   DB5

8  (LCD)   DB6

9  (LCD)   DB7

10 (LCD)   ENABLE

11 (LCD)   Register Select

12 (RS232) input  (see Note 3

13 (RS232) output 

14 +5 Volt

15 crystal

16 crystal

17 (X-10)  TW523 zero crossing input

18 (X-10)  TW523 data input



Notes. 

1) TW523 pin 2 goes to ground.

2) LCD is an Optrex DMC Series 16x1 line display from ALL ELECTRONICS.

   Supply power and ground according to spec, add a contrast control

   pot.  Be sure R/W input of LCD is grounded.

3) Use an RS232 driver such as the Maxim MAX203.

4) IR input is from a 'cube' such as Radio Shack 276-137.

   IR output goes to a 40KHz gated IRED flasher.  When the output goes

   'high', the IRED should flash.  I use a 555 oscillator (has high

   current sourcing capability) by applying the gate input to pin 4.



Distribution Policy

This software is intended for non commercial use and as shareware.  Your 

contribution can be anything you wish, but I think that $15 to $30 is a 

common shareware fee.  Please mail to the address at the top of this file.



The files follow in text format.  The top of each file

is marked by a line of asterisks *******.

The following files are in the package:

read.me      ;you are reading this file.

irdemo.asm   ;assemble this file - starts with some simple demos, and

             ;continues with an RS232 controlled IR remote.  The mapping

             ;of RS232 characters to IR function is as follows:

             ;U - Volume Up. D - Volume Down. 

             ;u - Channel Up. d - Channel Down.

             ;Send the above characters to the chip, and it sends out the

             ;corresponding IR command.  The LCD display shows all received

             ;IR commands, and characters typed from the RS232 port.

x10demo.asm  ;assemble this file - has RS232 controlled X10 interface.

             ;format of commands is: XC_NN<return>, where NN is the X10

             ;command.  Example 'Et' is Housecode E and Keycode ON.

             ;Response is CX_NN<return>, format similar to commands.

p16cxx.inc   ;file from Microchip, contains defs for P16 family of
registers.

lib.h        ;pic library.



The last line in this message should be:

;***** END OF FILE *****

Let me know if it isn't.  All the best!





;***************************************

TITLE "Library Demo Program"

;          Edward Cheung, Ph.D.        ;

;       Compiled with MPASM 1.20       ;

;      Loaded with   PICSTART 4.02     ;

;***************************************



;Select library modules.  Use 1/0, TRUE/FALSE not defined yet.

CONSTANT      AD_ENABLE  = 0

CONSTANT      R2_ENABLE  = 1

CONSTANT      R4_ENABLE  = 0

CONSTANT      LCD_ENABLE = 1

CONSTANT      IR_ENABLE  = 1

CONSTANT      TW_ENABLE  = 0



INCLUDE "LIB.H"         ;pic library



MAIN

  ;Initializations

  CALL        GEN_INIT



;simple module demos

IF  LCD_ENABLE == TRUE

  MOVLW       'H'       ;Print 'Hi' on LCD

  CALL        LCD_PRINT

  MOVLW       'i'

  CALL        LCD_PRINT

  MOVLW       H'10'     ;Put cursor at start

  CALL        LCD_PRINT

  CLRWDT

ENDIF



IF  R2_ENABLE == TRUE   ;Print 'Hi' on terminal

  MOVLW       'H'

  CALL        R2_SEND

  MOVLW       'i'

  CALL        R2_SEND

  CLRWDT

ENDIF



IF  TW_ENABLE == TRUE

  MOVLW       'E'       ;  tw_o_house = E;

  MOVWF       TW_T_HOUSE

  MOVLW       '1'       ;  tw_o_key   = 1;

  MOVWF       TW_T_KEY

  CALL        TW_SEND

  MOVLW       'E'       ;  tw_o_house = E;

  MOVWF       TW_T_HOUSE

  MOVLW       't'       ;  tw_o_key   = on;

  MOVWF       TW_T_KEY

  CALL        TW_SEND   ;  Send

  CLRWDT

ENDIF



IF  IR_ENABLE == TRUE

  MOVLW       D'1'      ;  TV = 1

  MOVWF       IR_T_DEV

  MOVLW       D'19'     ;  Volume Down = 19

  MOVWF       IR_T_DATA

  CALL        IR_SEND   ;  Send

  CLRWDT

ENDIF



;Do some real work with the library

  ;vars for RS232->IR command interpreter

  ALLOC       COM_BYTE  ;int com_byte; //received byte to interpret



MAIN_LOOP

  GOTO        MAIN_LOOP ;//do foreground processing here



IF  R2_ENABLE == TRUE

;This gets called when there is a new byte from rs232 serial line.

;A 'U' causes a 'Volume Up' command to be sent, a 'D' causes a 

;'Volume Down' to be sent, a 'u' causes a Channel Up, and a 'd'

;a Channel Down (in SONY SIRCS format).

R2_NEW_BYTE

  MOVWF       COM_BYTE  ;com_byte = W;

  CALL        R2_SEND   ;//echo to serial out

R2_TEST_VOUP            ;if (com_byte == 'U')

  MOVFW       COM_BYTE  

  SUBLW       'U'

  SKPZ

  GOTO        R2_TEST_VODN

  MOVLW       D'1'      ;  TV = 1

  MOVWF       IR_T_DEV

  MOVLW       D'18'     ;  Volume Up = 18

  MOVWF       IR_T_DATA

  CALL        IR_SEND   ;  // Send IR

  GOTO        R2_NEW_END

R2_TEST_VODN            ;else if (com_byte == 'D')

  MOVFW       COM_BYTE

  SUBLW       'D'

  SKPZ

  GOTO        R2_TEST_CHUP

  MOVLW       D'1'      ;  TV = 1

  MOVWF       IR_T_DEV

  MOVLW       D'19'     ;  Volume Down = 19

  MOVWF       IR_T_DATA

  CALL        IR_SEND   ;  // Send IR

  GOTO        R2_NEW_END

R2_TEST_CHUP

  MOVFW       COM_BYTE  ;if (com_byte == 'u')

  SUBLW       'u'

  SKPZ

  GOTO        R2_TEST_CHDN

  MOVLW       D'1'      ;  TV = 1

  MOVWF       IR_T_DEV

  MOVLW       D'16'     ;  Channel Up = 16

  MOVWF       IR_T_DATA

  CALL        IR_SEND   ;  // Send IR

  GOTO        R2_NEW_END

R2_TEST_CHDN            ;else if (com_byte == 'd')

  MOVFW       COM_BYTE

  SUBLW       'd'

  SKPZ

  GOTO        R2_PRINT

  MOVLW       D'1'      ;  TV = 1

  MOVWF       IR_T_DEV

  MOVLW       D'17'     ;  Channel Down = 17

  MOVWF       IR_T_DATA

  CALL        IR_SEND   ;  // Send IR

  GOTO        R2_NEW_END

R2_PRINT                ;else

  MOVFW       COM_BYTE

  CALL        LCD_PRINT ;  //display on lcd

R2_NEW_END

  RETURN



ENDIF



  END

;***************************************

TITLE "Library Demo Program"

;          Edward Cheung, Ph.D.        ;

;       Compiled with MPASM 1.20       ;

;      Loaded with   PICSTART 4.02     ;

;***************************************



;Select library modules.  Use 1/0, TRUE/FALSE not defined yet.

CONSTANT      AD_ENABLE  = 0

CONSTANT      R2_ENABLE  = 1

CONSTANT      R4_ENABLE  = 0

CONSTANT      LCD_ENABLE = 0

CONSTANT      IR_ENABLE  = 0

CONSTANT      TW_ENABLE  = 1



INCLUDE "LIB.H"         ;pic library



MAIN

  ;Initializations

  CALL        GEN_INIT



;Do some real work with the library

  ;vars for RS232->IR command interpreter

  ALLOC       COM_BYTE  ;int com_byte;  //received byte to interpret

  ALLOC       COM_STATE ;int com_state; //state of command state machine 

  CONSTANT    ADDRESS    = 'X'

  ALLOC       TW_P_HOUSE

  ALLOC       TW_P_KEY

  ;inits for main program

  CLRF        COM_STATE ;com_state = 0;



MAIN_LOOP

  GOTO        MAIN_LOOP ;//do foreground processing here



;This gets called when there is a new byte from rs232 serial line.

R2_NEW_BYTE

  MOVWF       COM_BYTE       ;com_byte = W;

;  CALL        R2_SEND        ;//echo to serial out

R2_STATE0                    ;if (com_state == 0)

  MOVFW       COM_STATE

  SUBLW       D'0'

  SKPZ

  GOTO        R2_STATE1

  MOVFW       COM_BYTE       ;  if (com_byte == address)

  SUBLW       ADDRESS

  SKPNZ

  INCF        COM_STATE,F    ;    com_state ++;

  GOTO        R2_END_NEW

R2_STATE1                    ;else if (com_state == 1)

  MOVFW       COM_STATE

  SUBLW       D'1'

  SKPZ

  GOTO        R2_STATE2

  INCF        COM_STATE,F    ;    com_state ++;

  GOTO        R2_END_NEW

R2_STATE2                    ;else if (com_state == 2)

  MOVFW       COM_STATE

  SUBLW       D'2'

  SKPZ

  GOTO        R2_STATE3

  MOVFW       COM_BYTE       ;  if (com_byte == '_')

  SUBLW       '_'

  SKPZ

  GOTO        R2_STATE2_ELSE

  INCF        COM_STATE,F    ;    com_state ++;

  GOTO        R2_END_NEW

R2_STATE2_ELSE               ;  else

  CLRF        COM_STATE      ;    com_state = 0;

  GOTO        R2_END_NEW

R2_STATE3                    ;else if (com_state == 3)

  MOVFW       COM_STATE

  SUBLW       D'3'

  SKPZ

  GOTO        R2_STATE4

  MOVFW       COM_BYTE       ;  tw_t_house = com_byte

  MOVWF       TW_T_HOUSE

  INCF        COM_STATE,F    ;  com_state ++;

  GOTO        R2_END_NEW

R2_STATE4                    ;else if (com_state == 4)

  MOVFW       COM_STATE

  SUBLW       D'4'

  SKPZ

  GOTO        R2_STATE5

  MOVFW       COM_BYTE       ;  tw_t_key = com_byte

  MOVWF       TW_T_KEY

  INCF        COM_STATE,F    ;  com_state ++;

  GOTO        R2_END_NEW

R2_STATE5                    ;else

  MOVFW       COM_BYTE       ;  if (com_byte == 13)

  SUBLW       D'13'

  SKPZ

  GOTO        R2_ABORT

  CALL        TW_SEND        ;    // send x-10

  CALL        R2_ECHO        ;    // send status

R2_ABORT

  CLRF        COM_STATE      ;  com_state = 0;

R2_END_NEW

  RETURN



;This is called when an X10 command is received.  House code will be

;in tw_house, and key code in tw_key.

TW_NEW

  MOVFW       TW_HOUSE       ;tw_p_house = converted(tw_house);

  CALL        TW_TO_HOUSE

  MOVWF       TW_P_HOUSE

  MOVFW       TW_KEY         ;tw_p_key = converted(tw_key);

  CALL        TW_TO_KEY

  MOVWF       TW_P_KEY

  RETURN



R2_ECHO

  MOVLW       'C'            ;Format of reply:

  CALL        R2_SEND        ;CX_E1<ret>

  MOVLW       'X'            ;^^^^^^

  CALL        R2_SEND        ;||||||

  MOVLW       '_'            ;|||||+- return character (0x13)

  CALL        R2_SEND        ;||||+-- 2nd response character

  MOVFW       TW_P_HOUSE     ;|||+--- 1st response character

  CALL        R2_SEND        ;||+---- underscore

  MOVFW       TW_P_KEY       ;|+----- from X-10 module

  CALL        R2_SEND        ;+------ to Computer

  MOVLW       D'13'

  CALL        R2_SEND



  MOVLW       ' '

  MOVWF       TW_P_HOUSE     ;//erase house and key code

  MOVWF       TW_P_KEY

  RETURN



END

;***************************************

        LIST

; P16CXX.INC  Standard Header File, Version 2.04    Microchip Technology,
Inc.

        NOLIST



; This header file defines configurations, registers, and other useful bits
of

; information for the 16CXX microcontrollers.  These names are taken to
match 

; the data sheets as closely as possible.  The microcontrollers included

; in this file are:



;       16C61

;       16C62

;       16C620

;       16C621

;       16C622

;       16C63

;       16C64

;       16C65

;       16C71

;       16C73

;       16C74

;       16C84





; There is one group of defines that is valid for all microcontrollers.  

; Each microcontroller in this family also has its own section of special 

; defines.  Note that the processor must be selected before this file is 

; included.  The processor may be selected the following ways:



;       1. Command line switch:

;               C:\ MPASM MYFILE.ASM /P16C71

;       2. LIST directive in the source file

;               LIST   P=16C71

;       3. Processor Type entry in the MPASM full-screen interface



;==========================================================================

;

;       Generic Definitions

;

;==========================================================================



   W                            EQU     H'0000'

   F                            EQU     H'0001'



;----- Register Files------------------------------------------------------



   INDF                         EQU     H'0000'

   TMR0                         EQU     H'0001'

   PCL                          EQU     H'0002'

   STATUS                       EQU     H'0003'

   FSR                          EQU     H'0004'

   PORTA                        EQU     H'0005'

   PORTB                        EQU     H'0006'



   PCLATH                       EQU     H'000A'

   INTCON                       EQU     H'000B'



   OPTION_REG                   EQU     H'0081'

   TRISA                        EQU     H'0085'

   TRISB                        EQU     H'0086'



;----- INTCON Bits (except ADC/Periph) ------------------------------------



   GIE                          EQU     H'0007'

   T0IE                         EQU     H'0005'

   INTE                         EQU     H'0004'

   RBIE                         EQU     H'0003'

   T0IF                         EQU     H'0002'

   INTF                         EQU     H'0001'

   RBIF                         EQU     H'0000'



;----- OPTION Bits --------------------------------------------------------



   NOT_RBPU                     EQU     H'0007'

   INTEDG                       EQU     H'0006'

   T0CS                         EQU     H'0005'

   T0SE                         EQU     H'0004'

   PSA                          EQU     H'0003'

   PS2                          EQU     H'0002'

   PS1                          EQU     H'0001'

   PS0                          EQU     H'0000'



;----- STATUS Bits --------------------------------------------------------



   IRP                          EQU     H'0007'

   RP1                          EQU     H'0006'

   RP0                          EQU     H'0005'

   NOT_TO                       EQU     H'0004'

   NOT_PD                       EQU     H'0003'

   Z                            EQU     H'0002'

   DC                           EQU     H'0001'

   C                            EQU     H'0000'



;==========================================================================

;

;       Processor-dependent Definitions

;

;==========================================================================



 IFDEF __16C61

   __MAXRAM H'0AF'

   __BADRAM H'07'-H'09', H'030'-H'07F', H'087'-H'089' 

   #define __CONFIG_0

 ENDIF



 IFDEF __16C62

      PORTC                     EQU     H'0007'

   __MAXRAM H'0BF'

   __BADRAM
H'08'-H'09',H'0D',H'018'-H'01F',H'08D',H'08F'-H'091',H'095'-H'09F'

   #define __CONFIG_2

 ENDIF



 IFDEF __16C620

   ;----- Register Files --------------------------------------------------

      PIR1                      EQU     H'000C'

      CMCON                     EQU     H'001F'



      PIE1                      EQU     H'008C'

      PCON                      EQU     H'008E'

      VRCON                     EQU     H'009F'



   __MAXRAM H'09F'

   __BADRAM H'07'-H'09', H'0D'-H'01E', H'070'-H'07F', H'087'-H'089', H'08D',
H'08F'-H'09E'

   #define __CONFIG_6

 ENDIF



 IFDEF __16C621

   ;----- Register Files --------------------------------------------------

      PIR1                      EQU     H'000C'

      CMCON                     EQU     H'001F'



      PIE1                      EQU     H'008C'

      PCON                      EQU     H'008E'

      VRCON                     EQU     H'009F'



   __MAXRAM H'09F'

   __BADRAM H'07'-H'09', H'0D'-H'01E', H'70'-H'07F', H'087'-H'089', H'08D',
H'08F'-H'09E'

   #define __CONFIG_4

 ENDIF



 IFDEF __16C622

   ;----- Register Files --------------------------------------------------

      PIR1                      EQU     H'000C'

      CMCON                     EQU     H'001F'



      PIE1                      EQU     H'008C'

      PCON                      EQU     H'008E'

      VRCON                     EQU     H'009F'



   __MAXRAM H'0BF'

   __BADRAM H'07'-H'09', H'0D'-H'01E', H'087'-H'089', H'08D', H'08F'-H'09E'

   #define __CONFIG_5

 ENDIF



 IFDEF __16C63

   ;----- Register Files --------------------------------------------------

      PORTC                     EQU     H'0007'

      PIR1                      EQU     H'000C'

      TMR1L                     EQU     H'000E'

      TMR1H                     EQU     H'000F'

      T1CON                     EQU     H'0010'

      TMR2                      EQU     H'0011'

      T2CON                     EQU     H'0012'

      SSPBUF                    EQU     H'0013'

      SSPCON                    EQU     H'0014'

      CCPR1L                    EQU     H'0015'

      CCPR1H                    EQU     H'0016'

      CCP1CON                   EQU     H'0017'



      TRISC                     EQU     H'0087'

      PIE1                      EQU     H'008C'

      PCON                      EQU     H'008E'

      PR2                       EQU     H'0092'

      SSPADD                    EQU     H'0093'

      SSPSTAT                   EQU     H'0094'



   __MAXRAM H'0BF'

   __BADRAM H'08'-H'09', H'0D', H'18'-H'1F', H'88', H'89', H'8D',
H'8F'-H'91', H'95'-H'9F'

   #define __CONFIG_5

 ENDIF



 IFDEF __16C64

   ;----- Register Files --------------------------------------------------

      PORTC                     EQU     H'0007'

      PORTD                     EQU     H'0008'

      PORTE                     EQU     H'0009'

      PIR1                      EQU     H'000C'

      TMR1L                     EQU     H'000E'

      TMR1H                     EQU     H'000F'

      T1CON                     EQU     H'0010'

      TMR2                      EQU     H'0011'

      T2CON                     EQU     H'0012'

      SSPBUF                    EQU     H'0013'

      SSPCON                    EQU     H'0014'

      CCPR1L                    EQU     H'0015'

      CCPR1H                    EQU     H'0016'

      CCP1CON                   EQU     H'0017'



      TRISC                     EQU     H'0087'

      TRISD                     EQU     H'0088'

      TRISE                     EQU     H'0089'

      PIE1                      EQU     H'008C'

      PCON                      EQU     H'008E'

      PR2                       EQU     H'0092'

      SSPADD                    EQU     H'0093'

      SSPSTAT                   EQU     H'0094'



   __MAXRAM H'0BF'

   __BADRAM H'0D', H'018'-H'01F', H'08D', H'08F'-H'091', H'095'-H'09F'

   #define __CONFIG_2

 ENDIF



 IFDEF __16C65

   ;----- Register Files --------------------------------------------------

      PORTC                     EQU     H'0007'

      PORTD                     EQU     H'0008'

      PORTE                     EQU     H'0009'

      PIR1                      EQU     H'000C'

      PIR2                      EQU     H'000D'

      TMR1L                     EQU     H'000E'

      TMR1H                     EQU     H'000F'

      T1CON                     EQU     H'0010'

      TMR2                      EQU     H'0011'

      T2CON                     EQU     H'0012'

      SSPBUF                    EQU     H'0013'

      SSPCON                    EQU     H'0014'

      CCPR1L                    EQU     H'0015'

      CCPR1H                    EQU     H'0016'

      CCP1CON                   EQU     H'0017'

      RCSTA                     EQU     H'0018'

      TXREG                     EQU     H'0019'

      RCREG                     EQU     H'001A'

      CCPR2L                    EQU     H'001B'

      CCPR2H                    EQU     H'001C'

      CCP2CON                   EQU     H'001D'



      TRISC                     EQU     H'0087'

      TRISD                     EQU     H'0088'

      TRISE                     EQU     H'0089'

      PIE1                      EQU     H'008C'

      PIE2                      EQU     H'008D'

      PCON                      EQU     H'008E'

      PR2                       EQU     H'0092'

      SSPADD                    EQU     H'0093'

      SSPSTAT                   EQU     H'0094'

      TXSTA                     EQU     H'0098'

      SPBRG                     EQU     H'0099'



   __MAXRAM H'0FF'

   __BADRAM H'1E'-H'1F',H'08F'-H'091', H'095'-H'097', H'09A'-H'09F'

   #define __CONFIG_2

 ENDIF



 IFDEF __16C71

   __MAXRAM H'0AF'

   __BADRAM H'07', H'030'-H'07F', H'087'

   #define __ADC_CONFIG_0

   #define __CONFIG_0

 ENDIF



 IFDEF __16C73

   ;----- Register Files --------------------------------------------------

      PORTC                     EQU     H'0007'

      PIR1                      EQU     H'000C'

      PIR2                      EQU     H'000D'

      TMR1L                     EQU     H'000E'

      TMR1H                     EQU     H'000F'

      T1CON                     EQU     H'0010'

      TMR2                      EQU     H'0011'

      T2CON                     EQU     H'0012'

      SSPBUF                    EQU     H'0013'

      SSPCON                    EQU     H'0014'

      CCPR1L                    EQU     H'0015'

      CCPR1H                    EQU     H'0016'

      CCP1CON                   EQU     H'0017'

      RCSTA                     EQU     H'0018'

      TXREG                     EQU     H'0019'

      RCREG                     EQU     H'001A'

      CCPR2L                    EQU     H'001B'

      CCPR2H                    EQU     H'001C'

      CCP2CON                   EQU     H'001D'



      TRISC                     EQU     H'0087'

      PIE1                      EQU     H'008C'

      PIE2                      EQU     H'008D'

      PCON                      EQU     H'008E'

      PR2                       EQU     H'0092'

      SSPADD                    EQU     H'0093'

      SSPSTAT                   EQU     H'0094'

      TXSTA                     EQU     H'0098'

      SPBRG                     EQU     H'0099'



   __MAXRAM H'0FF'

   __BADRAM H'08F'-H'091', H'095'-H'097', H'09A'-H'09E'

   #define __ADC_CONFIG_1

   #define __CONFIG_2

 ENDIF



 IFDEF __16C74

   ;----- Register Files --------------------------------------------------

      PORTC                     EQU     H'0007'

      PORTD                     EQU     H'0008'

      PORTE                     EQU     H'0009'

      PIR1                      EQU     H'000C'

      PIR2                      EQU     H'000D'

      TMR1L                     EQU     H'000E'

      TMR1H                     EQU     H'000F'

      T1CON                     EQU     H'0010'

      TMR2                      EQU     H'0011'

      T2CON                     EQU     H'0012'

      SSPBUF                    EQU     H'0013'

      SSPCON                    EQU     H'0014'

      CCPR1L                    EQU     H'0015'

      CCPR1H                    EQU     H'0016'

      CCP1CON                   EQU     H'0017'

      RCSTA                     EQU     H'0018'

      TXREG                     EQU     H'0019'

      RCREG                     EQU     H'001A'

      CCPR2L                    EQU     H'001B'

      CCPR2H                    EQU     H'001C'

      CCP2CON                   EQU     H'001D'



      TRISC                     EQU     H'0087'

      TRISD                     EQU     H'0088'

      TRISE                     EQU     H'0089'

      PIE1                      EQU     H'008C'

      PIE2                      EQU     H'008D'

      PCON                      EQU     H'008E'

      PR2                       EQU     H'0092'

      SSPADD                    EQU     H'0093'

      SSPSTAT                   EQU     H'0094'

      TXSTA                     EQU     H'0098'

      SPBRG                     EQU     H'0099'



   __MAXRAM H'0FF'

   __BADRAM H'08F'-H'091', H'095'-H'097', H'09A'-H'09E'

   #define __ADC_CONFIG_1

   #define __CONFIG_2

 ENDIF



 IFDEF __16C84

   ;----- Register Files --------------------------------------------------

      EEDATA                    EQU     H'0008'

      EEADR                     EQU     H'0009'



      EECON1                    EQU     H'0088'

      EECON2                    EQU     H'0089'



   __MAXRAM H'0AF'

   __BADRAM H'07', H'030'-H'07F', H'087'

   #define __CONFIG_0

 ENDIF



;==========================================================================

;

;       Configuration Bits

;

;==========================================================================



 IFDEF __CONFIG_0

   _CP_ON                       EQU     H'3FEF'

   _CP_OFF                      EQU     H'3FFF'

   _PWRTE_ON                    EQU     H'3FFF'

   _PWRTE_OFF                   EQU     H'3FF7'

   _WDT_ON                      EQU     H'3FFF'

   _WDT_OFF                     EQU     H'3FFB'

   _LP_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFC'

   _XT_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFD'

   _HS_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFE'

   _RC_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFF'



   #undefine __CONFIG_0

 ENDIF





 IFDEF __CONFIG_1

   _BODEN_ON                    EQU     H'3FFF'

   _BODEN_OFF                   EQU     H'3FBF'

   _CP_ON                       EQU     H'004F'

   _CP_OFF                      EQU     H'3FFF'

   _PWRTE_OFF                   EQU     H'3FFF'

   _PWRTE_ON                    EQU     H'3FF7'

   _WDT_ON                      EQU     H'3FFF'

   _WDT_OFF                     EQU     H'3FFB'

   _LP_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFC'

   _XT_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFD'

   _HS_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFE'

   _RC_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFF'



   #undefine __CONFIG_1

 ENDIF





 IFDEF __CONFIG_2

   _CP_ALL                      EQU     H'3F8F'

   _CP_75                       EQU     H'3F9F'

   _CP_50                       EQU     H'3FAF'

   _CP_OFF                      EQU     H'3FBF'

   _PWRTE_ON                    EQU     H'3FBF'

   _PWRTE_OFF                   EQU     H'3FB7'

   _WDT_ON                      EQU     H'3FBF'

   _WDT_OFF                     EQU     H'3FBB'

   _LP_OSC                      EQU     H'3FBC'

   _XT_OSC                      EQU     H'3FBD'

   _HS_OSC                      EQU     H'3FBE'

   _RC_OSC                      EQU     H'3FBF'



   #undefine __CONFIG_2

 ENDIF





 IFDEF __CONFIG_3

   _CP_ON                       EQU     H'000F'

   _CP_OFF                      EQU     H'3FFF'

   _PWRTE_ON                    EQU     H'3FFF'

   _PWRTE_OFF                   EQU     H'3FF7'

   _WDT_ON                      EQU     H'3FFF'

   _WDT_OFF                     EQU     H'3FFB'

   _LP_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFC'

   _XT_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFD'

   _HS_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFE'

   _RC_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFF'



   #undefine __CONFIG_3

 ENDIF





 IFDEF __CONFIG_4

   _BODEN_ON                    EQU     H'3FFF'

   _BODEN_OFF                   EQU     H'3FBF'

   _CP_ALL                      EQU     H'00CF'

   _CP_50                       EQU     H'15DF'

   _CP_OFF                      EQU     H'3FFF'

   _PWRTE_OFF                   EQU     H'3FFF'

   _PWRTE_ON                    EQU     H'3FF7'

   _WDT_ON                      EQU     H'3FFF'

   _WDT_OFF                     EQU     H'3FFB'

   _LP_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFC'

   _XT_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFD'

   _HS_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFE'

   _RC_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFF'



   #undefine __CONFIG_4

 ENDIF





 IFDEF __CONFIG_5

   _BODEN_ON                    EQU     H'3FFF'

   _BODEN_OFF                   EQU     H'3FBF'

   _CP_ALL                      EQU     H'00CF'

   _CP_75                       EQU     H'15DF'

   _CP_50                       EQU     H'2AEF'

   _CP_OFF                      EQU     H'3FFF'

   _PWRTE_OFF                   EQU     H'3FFF'

   _PWRTE_ON                    EQU     H'3FF7'

   _WDT_ON                      EQU     H'3FFF'

   _WDT_OFF                     EQU     H'3FFB'

   _LP_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFC'

   _XT_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFD'

   _HS_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFE'

   _RC_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFF'



   #undefine __CONFIG_5

 ENDIF



 IFDEF __CONFIG_6

   _BODEN_ON                    EQU     H'3FFF'

   _BODEN_OFF                   EQU     H'3FBF'

   _CP_ON                       EQU     H'00CF'

   _CP_OFF                      EQU     H'3FFF'

   _PWRTE_OFF                   EQU     H'3FFF'

   _PWRTE_ON                    EQU     H'3FF7'

   _WDT_ON                      EQU     H'3FFF'

   _WDT_OFF                     EQU     H'3FFB'

   _LP_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFC'

   _XT_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFD'

   _HS_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFE'

   _RC_OSC                      EQU     H'3FFF'



   #undefine __CONFIG_6

 ENDIF



;==========================================================================

;

;       More Bit Definitions

;

;==========================================================================



 IFDEF __ADC_CONFIG_0

   ;---- Register Files ---------------------------------------------------

      ADCON0                    EQU     H'0008'

      ADRES                     EQU     H'0009'



      ADCON1                    EQU     H'0088'



   ;---- Finish INTCON Definition -----------------------------------------

      ADIE                      EQU     H'0006'



   ;----- ADCON0 Bits -----------------------------------------------------

      ADCS1                     EQU     H'0007'

      ADCS0                     EQU     H'0006'

      CHS1                      EQU     H'0004'

      CHS0                      EQU     H'0003'

      GO                        EQU     H'0002'

      NOT_DONE                  EQU     H'0002'

      GO_DONE                   EQU     H'0002'

      ADIF                      EQU     H'0001'

      ADON                      EQU     H'0000'



   ;----- ADCON1 Bits -----------------------------------------------------

      PCFG1                     EQU     H'0001'

      PCFG0                     EQU     H'0000'



   #undefine __ADC_CONFIG_0

 ELSE

   ;---- Finish INTCON Definition -----------------------------------------

      PEIE                      EQU     H'0006'

 ENDIF





 IFDEF __ADC_CONFIG_1

   ;----- Register Files --------------------------------------------------

      ADRES                     EQU     H'001E'

      ADCON0                    EQU     H'001F'



      ADCON1                    EQU     H'009F'



   ;----- ADCON0 Bits -----------------------------------------------------

      ADCS1                     EQU     H'0007'

      ADCS0                     EQU     H'0006'

      CHS2                      EQU     H'0005'

      CHS1                      EQU     H'0004'

      CHS0                      EQU     H'0003'

      GO                        EQU     H'0002'

      NOT_DONE                  EQU     H'0002'

      GO_DONE                   EQU     H'0002'

      ADON                      EQU     H'0000'



   ;----- ADCON1 Bits -----------------------------------------------------

      PCFG2                     EQU     H'0002'

      PCFG1                     EQU     H'0001'

      PCFG0                     EQU     H'0000'



   ;----- PIE1 and PIR1 ADC Bits ------------------------------------------

      ADIE                      EQU     H'0006'

      ADIF                      EQU     H'0006'



   #undefine __ADC_CONFIG_1

 ENDIF





 IFDEF CCP1CON

   CCP1X                        EQU     H'0005'

   CCP1Y                        EQU     H'0004'

   CCP1M3                       EQU     H'0003'

   CCP1M2                       EQU     H'0002'

   CCP1M1                       EQU     H'0001'

   CCP1M0                       EQU     H'0000'

 ENDIF





 IFDEF CCP2CON

   CCP2X                        EQU     H'0005'

   CCP2Y                        EQU     H'0004'

   CCP2M3                       EQU     H'0003'

   CCP2M2                       EQU     H'0002'

   CCP2M1                       EQU     H'0001'

   CCP2M0                       EQU     H'0000'

 ENDIF





 IFDEF CMCON

   C2OUT                        EQU     H'0007'

   C1OUT                        EQU     H'0006'

   CIS                          EQU     H'0003'

   CM2                          EQU     H'0002'

   CM1                          EQU     H'0001'

   CM0                          EQU     H'0000'



   ;----- PIE1 and PIR1 ADC Bits ------------------------------------------

      CMIE                      EQU     H'0006'

      CMIF                      EQU     H'0006'

 ENDIF





 IFDEF EECON1

   EEIF                         EQU     H'0004'

   WRERR                        EQU     H'0003'

   WREN                         EQU     H'0002'

   WR                           EQU     H'0001'

   RD                           EQU     H'0000'

 ENDIF





 IFDEF PCON

   NOT_POR                      EQU     H'0001'

   NOT_BO                       EQU     H'0000'

 ENDIF





 IFDEF PIE1

   PSPIE                        EQU     H'0007'

   SSPIE                        EQU     H'0003'

   CCP1IE                       EQU     H'0002'

   TMR2IE                       EQU     H'0001'

   TMR1IE                       EQU     H'0000'

 ENDIF





 IFDEF PIR1

   PSPIF                        EQU     H'0007'

   SSPIF                        EQU     H'0003'

   CCP1IF                       EQU     H'0002'

   TMR2IF                       EQU     H'0001'

   TMR1IF                       EQU     H'0000'

 ENDIF





 IFDEF PIE2                                             ; Assumes PIE2 and
PIR2

   CCP2IE                       EQU     H'0000'

   CCP2IF                       EQU     H'0000'

 ENDIF





 IFDEF RCSTA

   SPEN                         EQU     H'0007'

   RC9                          EQU     H'0006'

   NOT_RC8                      EQU     H'0006'

   RC8_9                        EQU     H'0006'

   SREN                         EQU     H'0005'

   CREN                         EQU     H'0004'

   FERR                         EQU     H'0002'

   OERR                         EQU     H'0001'

   RCD8                         EQU     H'0000'



   ;----- PIE1 and PIR1 RC Bits ------------------------------------------

      RCIE                      EQU     H'0005'

      RBFL                      EQU     H'0005'

 ENDIF





 IFDEF SSPCON

   WCOL                         EQU     H'0007'

   SSPOV                        EQU     H'0006'

   SSPEN                        EQU     H'0005'

   CKP                          EQU     H'0004'

   SSPM3                        EQU     H'0003'

   SSPM2                        EQU     H'0002'

   SSPM1                        EQU     H'0001'

   SSPM0                        EQU     H'0000'

 ENDIF





 IFDEF SSPSTAT

   D                            EQU     H'0005'

   I2C_DATA                     EQU     H'0005'

   NOT_A                        EQU     H'0005'

   NOT_ADDRESS                  EQU     H'0005'

   D_A                          EQU     H'0005'

   DATA_ADDRESS                 EQU     H'0005'

   P                            EQU     H'0004'

   I2C_STOP                     EQU     H'0004'

   S                            EQU     H'0003'

   I2C_START                    EQU     H'0003'

   R                            EQU     H'0002'

   I2C_READ                     EQU     H'0002'

   NOT_W                        EQU     H'0002'

   NOT_WRITE                    EQU     H'0002'

   R_W                          EQU     H'0002'

   READ_WRITE                   EQU     H'0002'

   UA                           EQU     H'0001'

   BF                           EQU     H'0000'

 ENDIF





 IFDEF T1CON

   T1CKPS1                      EQU     H'0005'

   T1CKPS0                      EQU     H'0004'

   T1OSCEN                      EQU     H'0003'

   T1INSYNC                     EQU     H'0002'

   TMR1CS                       EQU     H'0001'

   TMR1ON                       EQU     H'0000'

 ENDIF





 IFDEF T2CON

   TOUTPS3                      EQU     H'0006'

   TOUTPS2                      EQU     H'0005'

   TOUTPS1                      EQU     H'0004'

   TOUTPS0                      EQU     H'0003'

   TMR2ON                       EQU     H'0002'

   T2CKPS1                      EQU     H'0001'

   T2CKPS0                      EQU     H'0000'

 ENDIF





 IFDEF TRISE

   IBF                          EQU     H'0007'

   OBF                          EQU     H'0006'

   IBOV                         EQU     H'0005'

   PSPMODE                      EQU     H'0004'

   TRISE2                       EQU     H'0002'

   TRISE1                       EQU     H'0001'

   TRISE0                       EQU     H'0000'

 ENDIF





 IFDEF TXSTA

   CSRC                         EQU     H'0007'

   TX9                          EQU     H'0006'

   NOT_TX8                      EQU     H'0006'

   TX8_9                        EQU     H'0006'

   TXEN                         EQU     H'0005'

   SYNC                         EQU     H'0004'

   BRGH                         EQU     H'0002'

   TRMT                         EQU     H'0001'

   TXD8                         EQU     H'0000'



   ;----- PIE1 and PIR1 TX Bits ------------------------------------------



      TXIE                      EQU     H'0004'

      TXIF                      EQU     H'0004'

 ENDIF





 IFDEF VRCON

   VREN                         EQU     H'0007'

   VROE                         EQU     H'0006'

   VRR                          EQU     H'0005'

   VR3                          EQU     H'0003'

   VR2                          EQU     H'0002'

   VR1                          EQU     H'0001'

   VR0                          EQU     H'0000'

 ENDIF



        LIST

;***************************************

;     LIBRARY OF UTILITIES FOR PIC     ;

;         EDWARD CHEUNG, PH.D.         ;

;          MITCHELLVILLE, MD           ;

;     ebc714@rs710.gsfc.nasa.gov       ;

;***************************************

;  MODIFICATION HISTORY

;  Version 0.1, July 1995:  

;  Compiles under MPASM 1.02.05.  Loads with PICSTART 4.02.

;  Currently available modules are A/D, LCD, X-10, IR, RS422 and RS232.  

;The RS485 code remains to be tested, and is awaiting

;driver chips to test the transmit enable line (R4_TRANON).  IR module 

;supports SONY (aka SIRCS) format.  Each module tested using LCD module.

;  Version 0.2, July 1995:  

;  Compiles under mpasm 1.20.  Moved interrupt functions into 

;main library.  Improved INT_HANDLER to call one module per 

;interrupt.  Previous version called all enabled modules, which caused
timing 

;problems.  Each module was not guaranteed to be called at a stable
frequency.

;  Fixed bug with computed gotos.  Added assembler code that will give a 

;warning if code with computed gotos is placed in program memory above

;location 0xff.  See Application Note AN556 in Embedded Control Handbook

;for more details.

;  Tested with 14.7456Mhz crystal.  This is a commonly available

;frequency that is divisible by 9600 and under 16Mhz.

;15.360Mhz and 15.9744Mhz are also good frequencies (not tested).

;At 14.x Mhz, 57600 interrupts/second is probably the fastest you can

;go.  If you need more, use a faster crystal.

;  Eliminated use of P16C71.INC file and used defs in P16CXX.INC.  This

;should improve support for other processors by substituting the proper

;*.inc file.  As far as I know, the only thing you will have to change

;for other processors in the MEM_FIRST and the MEM_LAST variables below,

;and don't enable the A/D if it doesn't exist.

;  Version 0.21:

;  Invalid commands to TW_SEND are rejected.



  GOTO        MAIN           ;start execution at 'main'



#define  __16C71             ;using PIC16C71

#INCLUDE "P16CXX.INC"        ;defs for register location

__FUSES  _WDT_ON&_HS_OSC     ;watch dog on, and hs oscillator



;***** General constants

  FXTAL       EQU       D'14745600'  ;device clock freq

  INTSEC      EQU       D'28800'    ;desired interrupts/sec.

  TRUE        EQU       1H

  FALSE       EQU       0H

  ;Set up desired interrupts/sec for chip.  A smaller number means more

  ;operations between interrupts, and more time alotted to the main program.

  RTC_NUM     EQU       D'256' - ((FXTAL/(4*INTSEC)) - D'7')

  ;number of modules that use the interrupt mechanism

  NUM_MOD     EQU       R2_ENABLE + R4_ENABLE + IR_ENABLE + IR_ENABLE +
TW_ENABLE

  ;number of times/sec each interrupt module gets control (is run)

  RUNSEC      EQU       INTSEC/NUM_MOD



;***** Memory Management

;Assign memory location to input variable 'name'

;Addresses will start at MEM_FIRST, and last one allowed is at MEM_LAST

;0CH to 2FH inclusive are available on '71.

;See .lst file for actual addresses.  In that file,

;MEM_INDEX will be one address past the last one.

;Thus max for MEM_INDEX is MEM_LAST + 1

  MEM_FIRST   EQU       0CH

  MEM_LAST    EQU       2FH

  MEM_INDEX   SET       MEM_FIRST

ALLOC         MACRO     NAME

  NAME        EQU       MEM_INDEX

  IF  MEM_INDEX > MEM_LAST

    CALL      OUT_OF_MEMORY_ERROR

    ;Reduce the number of modules in use

  ELSE

    MEM_INDEX SET       MEM_INDEX + 1

  ENDIF

  ENDM



;Assign memory location to input variable 'name'

;Total number of storage locations is 'spacing',

;which includes memory allocated in previous ALLOC call,

;and the one occupied by 'name'.

ALLOC_ARRAY   MACRO     NAME,SPACING

  IF  SPACING < 2

    CALL      ARRAY_TOO_SMALL

    ;Increase size of array to be greater than 2

  ENDIF

  MEM_INDEX   SET       (MEM_INDEX+SPACING)-2

  NAME        EQU       MEM_INDEX

  IF  MEM_INDEX > MEM_LAST

    CALL      OUT_OF_MEMORY

    ;Reduce the number of modules in use

  ELSE

    MEM_INDEX SET       MEM_INDEX + 1

  ENDIF

  ENDM



;Memory location assignment

;register storage for interrupt

  ALLOC       TEMP_W

  ALLOC       TEMP_STAT

  ALLOC       TASK_INDEX

;gen purpose for use in functions that interface to interrupt routines

  ALLOC       SCRATCH_1

  ALLOC       SCRATCH_2

IF  R2_ENABLE == TRUE

;rs232 uart

  ALLOC       R2_OUT_TIMR    ;output timer

  ALLOC       R2_OUT_BIT     ;index of current output bit

  ALLOC       R2_IN_TIMER    ;input timer

  ALLOC       R2_IN_BIT      ;index of current input bit

  ALLOC       R2_IN_BYTE     ;byte being received

  ALLOC       R2_IN_PTR      ;ring buffer pointer in

  ALLOC       R2_OUT_PTR     ;ring buffer pointer out

  ALLOC       R2_FIRST_BUF   ;ring buffer location

  ALLOC_ARRAY R2_LAST_BUF,D'07' ;ring buffer end

ENDIF

IF  R4_ENABLE == TRUE

;rs422/485 uart

  ALLOC       R4_OUT_TIMR    ;current bit being sent

  ALLOC       R4_OUT_BIT     ;output data

  ALLOC       R4_IN_TIMER    ;bit counter

  ALLOC       R4_IN_BIT      ;data input bit

  ALLOC       R4_IN_BYTE     ;byte being received

  ALLOC       R4_IN_PTR      ;ring buffer pointer in

  ALLOC       R4_OUT_PTR     ;ring buffer pointer out

  ALLOC       R4_FIRST_BUF   ;ring buffer location

  ALLOC_ARRAY R4_LAST_BUF,D'08' ;ring buffer end

ENDIF

IF  LCD_ENABLE == TRUE

;timer

  ALLOC       TIMER_HI

  ALLOC       TIMER_LO

;binary to bcd conversion

  ALLOC       LSD

  ALLOC       MSD

ENDIF

IF  IR_ENABLE == TRUE

;ir uart

  ALLOC       IR_DEV         ;received ir device

  ALLOC       IR_DATA        ;received ir data

  ALLOC       IR_PHASE       ;current ir bit being received

  ALLOC       IR_TIMER       ;rx countdown timer

  ALLOC       IR_T_DEV       ;tx ir device

  ALLOC       IR_T_DATA      ;tx ir data

  ALLOC       IR_O_COUNT     ;number of times to send ir data

  ALLOC       IR_O_DEV       ;ir device being sent

  ALLOC       IR_O_DATA      ;ir data being sent

  ALLOC       IR_O_PHASE     ;ir bit being sent

  ALLOC       IR_O_TIMER     ;tx countdown timer

ENDIF

IF   TW_ENABLE == TRUE

;x10 uart

;memory

  ALLOC       TW_FLAGS       ;for the following booleans:

  TW_PREV     EQU       00H  ;boolean, previous 60 hz status

  TW_STATE    EQU       01H  ;boolean, current 60 hz status

  TW_CARRIER  EQU       02H  ;boolean, data bit

  TW_O_CARR   EQU       03H  ;boolean, tw_o_carrier;

  TW_FIRST    EQU       04H  ;boolean, first packet of two

  ALLOC       TW_SAMPLE      ;countdown and control timer

  ALLOC       TW_PHASE       ;which bit current being sampled

  ALLOC       TW_HOUSE       ;house code data

  ALLOC       TW_KEY         ;key code data

  ALLOC       TW_O_SAMPLE    ;countdown and control timer

  ALLOC       TW_O_PHASE     ;bit being sent

  ALLOC       TW_O_HOUSE     ;house code being sent

  ALLOC       TW_O_KEY       ;key code being sent

  ALLOC       TW_T_HOUSE     ;next house code to be sent

  ALLOC       TW_T_KEY       ;next key code to be sent

  ALLOC       TW_MATCH       ;ascii of x10 code sought

  ALLOC       TW_INDEX       ;indexing counter

ENDIF         ;TW_ENABLE



;***** Interrupt related functions

;This is called every time an interrupt occurs.

;Due to computed GOTO, this function must reside in memory range 0-FF.

;One module is called everytime there is an interrupt.  Note how the call

;of each module is written.  There must be exactly 4 instructions between

;each IF...ENDIF statement.

;Note that IR functions are called in separate interrupts.  That is because

;each takes so much time to run.

INT_HANDLER   MACRO

  MOVFW       TASK_INDEX     ;if (task_index == num_mod)

  SUBLW       NUM_MOD

  SKPNZ

  CLRF        TASK_INDEX     ;  task_index = 0;

  CLRC                       ;// clear carry

  RLF         TASK_INDEX,F   ;pc += (task_index++ * 4)

  RLF         TASK_INDEX,W

  RRF         TASK_INDEX,F

  INCF        TASK_INDEX,F

  ADDWF       PCL,F          ;//computed goto, run one of the modules below

IF TW_ENABLE == TRUE

  CALL        TW_GET         ;check x10 input

  CALL        TW_PUT         ;check x10 output

  GOTO        INT_H_END

  GOTO        INT_H_END

ENDIF

IF R2_ENABLE == TRUE

  CALL        R2_SER_IN      ;check serial input

  CALL        R2_SER_OUT     ;check serial output

  GOTO        INT_H_END

  GOTO        INT_H_END

ENDIF

IF R4_ENABLE == TRUE

  CALL        R4_SER_IN      ;check serial input

  CALL        R4_SER_OUT     ;check serial output

  GOTO        INT_H_END

  GOTO        INT_H_END

ENDIF

IF IR_ENABLE == TRUE

  CALL        IR_GET         ;check ir input

  GOTO        INT_H_END

  GOTO        INT_H_END

  GOTO        INT_H_END

  CALL        IR_PUT         ;check ir output

  GOTO        INT_H_END

  GOTO        INT_H_END

  GOTO        INT_H_END

ENDIF

INT_H_END

IF INT_H_END > H'FE'

  CALL        PAGE_ERROR 

  ;Due to computed gotos, this should be in program memory below 0xFF

  ;See Application Note AN556, example 5 for more info.

ENDIF

ENDM



;Interrupt service routine.  

INT_VECT   ORG         H'04'

  ;Save W and STATUS registers

  MOVWF    TEMP_W      ;save W

  SWAPF    STATUS,W    ;get swapped status

  MOVWF    TEMP_STAT   ;save swapped status



  ;Reschedule next interrupt

  MOVLW    RTC_NUM

  MOVWF    TMR0        ;setup for next interrupt

  CLRWDT



  ;Do interrupt actions

  INT_HANDLER 



  ;Clear interrupt sources

; BCF      INTCON,RBIF ;clear interrupt from RB<7:4>

; BCF      INTCON,INTF ;clear interrupt from RB0

  BCF      INTCON,T0IF ;clear interrupt from timer 0



  ;Restore registers and return

  SWAPF    TEMP_STAT,W ;get and unswap STATUS

  MOVWF    STATUS      ;restore STATUS

  SWAPF    TEMP_W,F    ;swap TEMP_W

  SWAPF    TEMP_W,W    ;unswap and restore W

  RETFIE               ;return from interrupt



;***** General Macros and Functions

;Select page 1

PAGE_1        MACRO

  BSF         STATUS,RP0   

  ENDM



;Select page 0

PAGE_0        MACRO

  BCF         STATUS,RP0   

  ENDM



;Main Inits

GEN_INIT

  ;Note!  This also sets up general operation of Ports.  If they

  ;are digital or analog, pullups enabled or not etc.

  ;Setup PORTA options

  IF   AD_ENABLE == TRUE

    PAGE_1      

    MOVLW     B'00000000'    ;all pins analog

    MOVWF     ADCON1^H'80'   ;setup PORTA function

    PAGE_0

  ELSE

    PAGE_1      

    MOVLW     B'00000011'    ;all pins digital

    MOVWF     ADCON1^H'80'   ;setup PORTA function

    PAGE_0

  ENDIF

  ;PortB no pullup, Prescaler to WDT.  See Page 2-355 '94 edition

  PAGE_1

  CLRWDT

  MOVLW       B'10001000' 

  MOVWF       OPTION_REG^H'80'

  PAGE_0

  ;other variables

  CLRF        TMR0

  CLRF        TASK_INDEX



  ;Call the init functions of modules that are needed

  IF  LCD_ENABLE == TRUE

    CALL      LCD_INIT

  ENDIF

  IF  R2_ENABLE == TRUE

    CALL      R2_INIT

  ENDIF

  IF  R4_ENABLE == TRUE

    CALL      R4_INIT

  ENDIF

  IF  IR_ENABLE == TRUE

    CALL      IR_INIT

  ENDIF

  IF  TW_ENABLE == TRUE

    CALL      TW_INIT

  ENDIF



  ;GIE enable, T0IE enable for interrupt mechanism

  MOVLW       B'10100000'

  MOVWF       INTCON

  CLRWDT

  RETURN



;***** X-10 FUNCTIONS.  Due to computed gotos, this has to be

;below program memory location FF.  Warnings are built in if the above is

;not met.

IF   TW_ENABLE == TRUE

;defs

  TW_PORT     EQU       PORTA

  TW_60       EQU       00H  ;60Hz crossing input

  TW_FROM     EQU       01H  ;data from house input

  TW_TO       EQU       02H  ;data to house output

  TW_10       EQU       (RUNSEC * D'11')/D'10000'

  TW_05       EQU       (RUNSEC * D'05')/D'10000' 



;Returns house code when given x10 code in W

TW_TO_HOUSE

  ANDLW       H'F'      ;mask upper nibble

  ADDWF       PCL,F     ;computed goto

  RETLW       'M'       ;returned if input = 0

  RETLW       'N'

  RETLW       'O'

  RETLW       'P'

  RETLW       'C'

  RETLW       'D'

  RETLW       'A'

  RETLW       'B'

  RETLW       'E'

  RETLW       'F'

  RETLW       'G'

  RETLW       'H'

  RETLW       'K'

  RETLW       'L'

  RETLW       'I'

  RETLW       'J'       ;returned if input = F

TW_TOH_END

IF TW_TOH_END > H'FE'

  CALL        PAGE_ERROR 

  ;Due to computed gotos, this should be in program memory below 0xFF

  ;See Application Note AN556, example 5

ENDIF



;Returns unit or function code when given x10 code in W

TW_TO_KEY

  ANDLW       H'1F'     ;mask upper 3 bits

  ADDWF       PCL,F     ;computed goto

  RETLW       'D'       ;returned if input = 0x0

  RETLW       'E'

  RETLW       'F'

  RETLW       'G'

  RETLW       '3'

  RETLW       '4'

  RETLW       '1'

  RETLW       '2'

  RETLW       '5'

  RETLW       '6'

  RETLW       '7'

  RETLW       '8'

  RETLW       'B'

  RETLW       'C'

  RETLW       '9'

  RETLW       'A'       ;returned if input = 0xf

  RETLW       'u'       ;all units off

  RETLW       'r'       ;hail request

  RETLW       'd'       ;dim

  RETLW       'n'       ;extended data (analog)

  RETLW       't'       ;on

  RETLW       'p'       ;pre-set dim

  RETLW       'a'       ;all lights off

  RETLW       'l'       ;status = off

  RETLW       'o'       ;all lights on

  RETLW       'h'       ;hail acknowledge

  RETLW       'b'       ;bright

  RETLW       's'       ;status = on

  RETLW       'f'       ;off

  RETLW       'p'       ;pre-set dim

  RETLW       'x'       ;extended code

  RETLW       'q'       ;status request

TW_TOK_END

IF TW_TOK_END > H'FE'

  CALL        PAGE_ERROR 

  ;Due to computed gotos, this should be in program memory below 0xFF

  ;See Application Note AN556, example 5

ENDIF



;Given a key code (in ASCII), this returns the X-10 code

TW_TO_XKEY

  MOVWF       TW_MATCH       ;  match = w;

  CLRF        TW_INDEX       ;  index = 0;

TW_TEST_KEY                  ;  while {

  MOVFW       TW_INDEX

  CALL        TW_TO_KEY      ;    if (w == match) {

  SUBWF       TW_MATCH,W

  SKPZ

  GOTO        TW_RETRY_KEY

  MOVFW       TW_INDEX       ;      return index

  RETURN

TW_RETRY_KEY                 ;    } else {

  MOVLW       D'32'          ;      if (index < 32) {

  SUBWF       TW_INDEX,W

  SKPNC

  GOTO        TW_NONE_KEY    ;      goto none_found

  INCF        TW_INDEX,F     ;      index ++;

  GOTO        TW_TEST_KEY    ;  } 

TW_NONE_KEY                  ;  none_found

  RETLW       H'80'          ;    return h'80'

  

;Given a house code (in ASCII), this returns the X-10 code

TW_TO_XHOUSE

  MOVWF       TW_MATCH       ;  match = w;

  CLRF        TW_INDEX       ;  index = 0;

TW_TEST                      ;  while {

  MOVFW       TW_INDEX

  CALL        TW_TO_HOUSE    ;    if (w == match) {

  SUBWF       TW_MATCH,W

  SKPZ

  GOTO        TW_RETRY

  MOVFW       TW_INDEX       ;      return index

  RETURN

TW_RETRY                     ;    } else {

  MOVLW       D'16'          ;      if (index < 16) {

  SUBWF       TW_INDEX,W

  SKPNC

  GOTO        TW_NONE_FOUND  ;        goto none_found

  INCF        TW_INDEX,F     ;      index ++;

  GOTO        TW_TEST        ;  } 

TW_NONE_FOUND                ;  none_found

  RETLW       H'80'          ;    return h'80'



;Initialize tw523 stuff

TW_INIT                      ;tw_init() {

  ;Ports

  PAGE_1

  BSF         TW_PORT,TW_60  ;  1 IS INPUT

  BSF         TW_PORT,TW_FROM;  0 IS OUTPUT

  BCF         TW_PORT,TW_TO

  PAGE_0

  CLRF        TW_FLAGS       ;  tw_flags = 0;

  BCF         TW_FLAGS,TW_PREV

  BTFSC       TW_PORT,TW_60  ;  tw_prev = input(tw_port,tw_60);

  BSF         TW_FLAGS,TW_PREV



  CLRF        TW_O_PHASE     ;  tw_o_phase = 0;

  CLRF        TW_O_HOUSE     ;  tw_o_house = 0;

  CLRF        TW_O_KEY       ;  tw_o_key = 0;

;Reset variables for start of x10 reception

TW_RESET

  CLRF        TW_SAMPLE      ;  tw_sample = 0;

  CLRF        TW_PHASE       ;  tw_phase = 0;

  CLRF        TW_HOUSE       ;  tw_house = 0;

  CLRF        TW_KEY         ;  tw_key = 0;

  RETURN                     ;}



;Get data from X10 interface.  New_tw() gets called if a valid

;message is received

TW_GET                       ;tw_get() {

  TSTF        TW_SAMPLE      ;  if (tw_sample == 0) {

  SKPZ

  GOTO        TW_SAMPLE_DATA ;    //check zero crossing

  BTFSS       TW_PORT,TW_60  ;    if (input(tw_port,tw_60) == 1) {

  GOTO        TW_60_LO

  BTFSC       TW_FLAGS,TW_PREV;     if (tw_prev == 0) {

  RETURN

  MOVLW       TW_05          ;        tw_sample = tw_05;

  MOVWF       TW_SAMPLE

  BSF         TW_FLAGS,TW_PREV;       tw_prev = 1;

  RETURN                     ;      }

TW_60_LO                     ;    } else {

  BTFSS       TW_FLAGS,TW_PREV;     if (tw_prev == 1) {

  RETURN

  MOVLW       TW_05          ;        tw_sample = tw_05;

  MOVWF       TW_SAMPLE

  BCF         TW_FLAGS,TW_PREV;       tw_prev = 0;

  RETURN                     ;      }

TW_SAMPLE_DATA               ;    }

  MOVLW       D'1'           ;  } else if (tw_sample == 1) {

  SUBWF       TW_SAMPLE,W

  SKPZ

  GOTO        TW_WAIT        ;    // sample data

  CLRF        TW_SAMPLE      ;    tw_sample = 0;

  BSF         TW_FLAGS,TW_CARRIER

  BTFSC       TW_PORT,TW_FROM;    tw_carrier = ~input(tw_port,tw_from);

  BCF         TW_FLAGS,TW_CARRIER

  MOVLW       D'12'          ;    if (tw_phase >= 12) {

  SUBWF       TW_PHASE,W

  SKPC

  GOTO        TW_HOUSECODE   ;      // sample key code

  INCF        TW_PHASE,F     ;      tw_phase ++;

  BTFSS       TW_PHASE,W     ;      if (tw_phase,W == 1) {

  GOTO        TW_KEY_HALF

  CLRC                       ;        // first half bit

  RRF         TW_KEY,F       ;        tw_key >>

  BTFSC       TW_FLAGS,TW_CARRIER ;   if (tw_carrier = 1)

  BSF         TW_KEY,4       ;          set tw_key,4;

  GOTO        TW_SAMPLE_END

TW_KEY_HALF                  ;      } else {

                             ;        // second half bit

  BTFSS       TW_FLAGS,TW_CARRIER ;   if (tw_carrier == 1) {

  GOTO        TW_KEY_ELSE

  BTFSC       TW_KEY,4       ;          if (tw_key,4 != 0)

  CALL        TW_RESET       ;            tw_reset;

  GOTO        TW_SAMPLE_END

TW_KEY_ELSE                  ;        } else {

  BTFSS       TW_KEY,4       ;          if (tw_key,4 != 1)

  CALL        TW_RESET       ;            tw_reset;

  GOTO        TW_SAMPLE_END  ;        }

TW_HOUSECODE                 ;      }

  MOVLW       D'4'           ;    } else if (tw_phase >= 4) {

  SUBWF       TW_PHASE,W     ;      // sample house code

  SKPC

  GOTO        TW_SYNC_B

  INCF        TW_PHASE,F     ;      tw_phase ++;

  BTFSS       TW_PHASE,W     ;      if (tw_phase,W == 1) {

  GOTO        TW_HOUSE_HALF

  CLRC                       ;        // first half bit

  RRF         TW_HOUSE,F     ;        tw_house >>

  BTFSC       TW_FLAGS,TW_CARRIER;    if (tw_carrier = 1)

  BSF         TW_HOUSE,3     ;          set tw_house,3;

  GOTO        TW_SAMPLE_END

TW_HOUSE_HALF                ;        } else {

                             ;        // second half bit

  BTFSS       TW_FLAGS,TW_CARRIER ;   if (tw_carrier == 1) {

  GOTO        TW_HOUSE_ELSE

  BTFSC       TW_HOUSE,3     ;          if (tw_house,3 != 0)

  CALL        TW_RESET       ;            tw_reset;

  GOTO        TW_SAMPLE_END

TW_HOUSE_ELSE                ;        } else {

  BTFSS       TW_HOUSE,3     ;          if (tw_house,3 != 1)

  CALL        TW_RESET       ;            tw_reset;

  GOTO        TW_SAMPLE_END  ;        }

TW_SYNC_B

  MOVLW       D'3'           ;    } else if tw_phase == 3) {

  SUBWF       TW_PHASE,W

  SKPZ

  GOTO        TW_SYNC_A

  INCF        TW_PHASE,F     ;      tw_phase ++;

  BTFSC       TW_FLAGS,TW_CARRIER;  if (tw_carrier == 1)

  CLRF        TW_PHASE       ;        tw_phase = 0;

  GOTO        TW_SAMPLE_END  ;      }

TW_SYNC_A                    ;    } else {

  INCF        TW_PHASE,F     ;      tw_phase ++;

  BTFSS       TW_FLAGS,TW_CARRIER;  if (tw_carrier == 0)

  CLRF        TW_PHASE       ;        tw_phase = 0;

  GOTO        TW_SAMPLE_END

TW_SAMPLE_END                ;    }

  MOVLW       D'22'          ;    if (tw_phase == 22) {

  SUBWF       TW_PHASE,W

  SKPZ

  RETURN

  CALL        TW_NEW         ;      new_tw();

  CALL        TW_RESET       ;      tw_reset();

  RETURN                     ;    }

TW_WAIT                      ;  } else {

                             ;    wait until sample time

  DECF        TW_SAMPLE,F    ;    tw_sample --;

                             ;  }

  RETURN                     ;}



;trigger send.  Does not restore W register

TW_SEND                      ;tw_send() {

  ;Store data in converted form

  MOVFW       TW_T_HOUSE     ;  tw_t_house = converted(tw_t_house);

  CALL        TW_TO_XHOUSE

  MOVWF       TW_T_HOUSE

  BTFSC       TW_T_HOUSE,7   ;  if (tw_t_house,7 == 1)

  RETURN                     ;    return; // invalid command

  MOVFW       TW_T_KEY       ;  tw_t_key = converted(tw_t_key);

  CALL        TW_TO_XKEY

  MOVWF       TW_T_KEY

  BTFSC       TW_T_KEY,7     ;  if (tw_t_key,7 == 1)

  RETURN                     ;    return; // invalid command



  ;Wait till no transmissions

TW_SEND_WAIT

  TSTF        TW_O_PHASE     ;  while (tw_o_phase != 0) {}

  SKPZ

  GOTO        TW_SEND_WAIT



  ;Put data into transmit queue

  MOVFW       TW_T_HOUSE     ;  tw_o_house = tw_t_house;

  MOVWF       TW_O_HOUSE

  MOVFW       TW_T_KEY       ;  tw_o_key = tw_t_key;

  MOVWF       TW_O_KEY

  BSF       TW_FLAGS,TW_FIRST;  tw_first = 1;

  MOVLW       D'1'           ;  tw_o_phase = 1;

  MOVWF       TW_O_PHASE

  CLRF        TW_O_SAMPLE    ;  tw_o_sample = 0;

  RETURN                     ;}



;Interrupt based X10 send function

;Call tw_get before tw_put to get zero crossing

TW_PUT                       ;tw_put(){

  TSTF        TW_O_PHASE     ;  if (tw_o_phase == 0) {

  SKPZ                       ;    // no active transmission

  GOTO        TW_TEST_ZERO

  BCF         TW_PORT,TW_TO  ;    output (tw_port,tw_to) = 0;

  RETURN                     ;    return

TW_TEST_ZERO

  MOVLW       TW_05          ;  } else if (tw_sample == tw_05) {

  SUBWF       TW_SAMPLE,W    ;    // just had zero crossing

  SKPZ

  GOTO        TW_ENDBIT

TW_ZEROWAIT

  MOVLW       H'55'           ;   if (tw_o_phase > 0x55) {

  SUBWF       TW_O_PHASE,W

  SKPNC                      ;      // wait the req'd # of zero crossings

  GOTO        TW_STARTBIT    ;      // between transmissions

TW_SYNC

  MOVLW       D'4'           ;    } else if (tw_o_phase <= 4) {

  SUBWF       TW_O_PHASE,W   ;      // send carrier high (sync begin)

  SKPNC

  GOTO        TW_SECOND

  BSF         TW_PORT,TW_TO  ;        output (tw_port,tw_to) = 1;

  BSF         TW_FLAGS,TW_O_CARR;     tw_o_carr == 1; //for 2nd bit

  GOTO        TW_STARTBIT

TW_SECOND

  BTFSC       TW_O_PHASE,W   ;    } else if (tw_o_phase,W == 0) {

  GOTO        TW_SENDKEY     ;      // send second half bit

  BTFSS       TW_FLAGS,TW_O_CARR;   if (tw_o_carr != 1)

  BSF         TW_PORT,TW_TO  ;        output (tw_port,tw_to) = 1;

  GOTO        TW_STARTBIT

TW_SENDKEY

  MOVLW       D'13'          ;    } else if (tw_o_phase >= 13) {

  SUBWF       TW_O_PHASE,W   ;      // send key code

  SKPC

  GOTO        TW_SENDHOUSE

  CLRC                       ;      clear carry

  BCF         TW_FLAGS,TW_O_CARR;   tw_o_carr = 0;

  RRF         TW_O_KEY,F     ;      tw_o_key >>

  SKPC                       ;      if (carry == 1) {

  GOTO        TW_STARTBIT    

  BSF         TW_PORT,TW_TO  ;        output (tw_port,tw_to) = 1;

  BSF         TW_FLAGS,TW_O_CARR;     tw_o_carr = 1;

  BSF         TW_O_KEY,4     ;        tw_o_key,4 = 1;

  GOTO        TW_STARTBIT    ;      }

TW_SENDHOUSE                 ;    } else {

                             ;      // send house code

  CLRC                       ;      clear carry

  BCF         TW_FLAGS,TW_O_CARR;   tw_o_carr = 0;

  RRF         TW_O_HOUSE,F   ;      tw_o_house >>

  SKPC                       ;      if (carry == 1) {

  GOTO        TW_STARTBIT    

  BSF         TW_PORT,TW_TO  ;        output (tw_port,tw_to) = 1;

  BSF         TW_FLAGS,TW_O_CARR;     tw_o_carr = 1;

  BSF         TW_O_HOUSE,3   ;        tw_o_house,3 = 1;

                             ;      }

TW_STARTBIT                  ;    }

  INCF        TW_O_PHASE,F   ;    tw_o_phase ++;

  MOVLW       TW_10          ;    tw_o_sample = tw_10;

  MOVWF       TW_O_SAMPLE

  RETURN

TW_ENDBIT

  MOVLW       D'1'           ;  } else if (tw_o_sample == 1) {

  SUBWF       TW_O_SAMPLE,W  ;    // send carr low, end of bit

  SKPZ

  GOTO        TW_WAIT_SEND

  BCF         TW_PORT,TW_TO  ;    output (tw_port,tw_to) = 0;

  CLRF        TW_O_SAMPLE    ;    tw_o_sample = 0;

  MOVLW       D'23'          ;    if (tw_o_phase == 23) {

  SUBWF       TW_O_PHASE,W   ;      // end of tx ?

  SKPZ

  RETURN

  BTFSS       TW_FLAGS,TW_FIRST;    if (tw_first == 1) {

  GOTO        TW_ENDELSE

  MOVLW       D'1'           ;        tw_o_phase = 1;

  MOVWF       TW_O_PHASE

  BCF         TW_FLAGS,TW_FIRST;      tw_first = 0;

  RETURN

TW_ENDELSE                   ;      } else

  MOVLW       H'FB'          ;        //end transmission, setup wait time

  MOVWF       TW_O_PHASE     ;        tw_o_phase = -5;

  RETURN                     ;    }

TW_WAIT_SEND

  MOVLW       D'1'           ;  } else if (tw_o_sample >= 1) {

  SUBWF       TW_O_SAMPLE,W  ;    // wait time till end of bit

  SKPNC

  DECF        TW_O_SAMPLE,F  ;    tw_o_sample --;

TW_SENDEND                   ;  }

  RETURN                     ;}



ENDIF         ;TW_ENABLE



;***** A/D ROUTINES

IF   AD_ENABLE == TRUE

;A/D CHANNELS

  CH0         EQU       00H

  CH1         EQU       08H

  CH2         EQU       10H

  CH3         EQU       18H



;Select CHANNEL as the desired A/D input

;Usage: AD_SELECT     CH0

AD_SELECT     MACRO     CHANNEL

  MOVLW       B'11000001'    ;use internal clock, ad on

  IORLW       CHANNEL   ;program channel

  MOVWF       ADCON0    ;setup ad

  BCF       INTCON,ADIE ;disable A/D interrupt

  ENDM



;Read the currently selected A/D input into W

AD_READ                                                         

  BSF         ADCON0,2  ;start conversion

AD_TEST

  BTFSC       ADCON0,2  ;test ad done

  GOTO        AD_TEST   ;test again

  MOVF        ADRES,W   ;put result in W

  RETURN

ENDIF         ;AD_ENABLE



;***** RS232 ROUTINES

;Default parameters are no parity, eight bits, one stop bit

IF   R2_ENABLE == TRUE

;The quiescent state of the line is '1'.  A start bit is '0',

;and the data bits follow uninverted.  The stop bit is a '1'.

;Constants

  R2_BAUD     EQU       RUNSEC/D'2400'

  IF (RUNSEC != R2_BAUD*D'2400')

    CALL      INTSEC_ERROR

    ;R2_BAUD must be a whole number - adjust INTSEC or 

    ;the number of modules in use

  ENDIF

  R2_PORT     EQU       PORTB

  R2_IN       EQU       06H

  R2_OUT      EQU       07H

  R2_DUPLEX   EQU       TRUE ;True for regular rs232



;Moves 'index' to next  ;int advance_ptr(int *index)

;element in ring buffer ;{

R2_ADV_PTR    MACRO     INDEX

  LOCAL       R2_END_ADV

  INCF        INDEX,F   ;  index++

  MOVF        INDEX,W   ;  if (index > last_buffer)

  SUBLW       R2_LAST_BUF

  SKPNC

  GOTO        R2_END_ADV

  MOVLW     R2_FIRST_BUF;    index = first_buffer

  MOVWF       INDEX

R2_END_ADV              ;  return index

  ENDM                  ;}



;Inits for RS232 serial routines

R2_INIT

  ;serial ring buffer and status variables

  MOVLW    R2_FIRST_BUF ;out_ptr = first_buf;

  MOVWF       R2_OUT_PTR

  MOVLW    R2_FIRST_BUF ;in_ptr = first_buf;

  MOVWF       R2_IN_PTR

  CLRF        R2_OUT_BIT;out_bit = 0;

  CLRF        R2_IN_BIT ;in_bit = 0;

  MOVLW       H'1'      ;out_timer = 1;

  MOVWF       R2_OUT_TIMR

  ;setup serial port pins

  BSF         R2_PORT,R2_OUT     ;outp(1);

  PAGE_1

  BSF         TRISB^H'80',R2_IN  ;1 is input

  BCF         TRISB^H'80',R2_OUT ;0 is output

  PAGE_0

  RETURN



;Serial output routines      ;void serial_out()

R2_SER_OUT                   ;{

  TSTF        R2_OUT_BIT     ;  if (out_bit == 0) {

  SKPZ

  GOTO        R2_TIMER       ;    // idle, not sending

  IF R2_DUPLEX == FALSE      ;    // check if currently reading byte

  TSTF        R2_IN_BIT      ;    if ((in_bit != 0)&&(r2_duplex == false))

  SKPZ

  RETURN                     ;      return;

  ENDIF ;R2_DUPLEX

  MOVF        R2_OUT_PTR,W   ;    if (out_ptr != in_ptr) {

  SUBWF       R2_IN_PTR,W

  SKPNZ

  RETURN                     ;      // send next byte

  MOVLW       D'1'           ;      out_bit = 1;

  MOVWF       R2_OUT_BIT

  R2_ADV_PTR  R2_OUT_PTR     ;      advance_ptr(out_ptr);

  RETURN                     ;    }

R2_TIMER                     ;  } else {

  DECF        R2_OUT_TIMR,F  ;    out_timer--;

  MOVFW       R2_OUT_TIMR    ;    if (out_timer <= 0) {

  SUBLW       D'0'

  SKPC

  RETURN

  MOVLW       R2_BAUD        ;      out_timer = rn_baud;

  MOVWF       R2_OUT_TIMR

  MOVFW       R2_OUT_BIT     ;      if (out_bit == 1) {

  SUBLW       D'1'

  SKPZ

  GOTO        R2_TEST_1TO8   ;        // start bit

  BCF         R2_PORT,R2_OUT ;!0      outp(0);

  INCF        R2_OUT_BIT,F   ;        out_bit++

  RETURN

R2_TEST_1TO8

  MOVF        R2_OUT_BIT,W   ;      } else if (out_bit <= 9) {

  SUBLW       D'9'

  SKPC

  GOTO        R2_STOP        ;        // send bit

  MOVF        R2_OUT_PTR,W   ;        if (ring_buffer[out_ptr]&&0x01)

  MOVWF       FSR

  BTFSC       INDF,W

  BSF         R2_PORT,R2_OUT ;!1        outp(1);

  BTFSS       INDF,W         ;        else

  BCF         R2_PORT,R2_OUT ;!0        outp(0);

  RRF         INDF,F         ;        ring_buffer[out_ptr] =
ring_buffer[out_ptr] >> 1;

  INCF        R2_OUT_BIT,F   ;        out_bit++

  RETURN

R2_STOP

  MOVF        R2_OUT_BIT,W   ;      } else if (out_bit <= 10)

  SUBLW       D'10'

  SKPC

  GOTO        R2_DONE        ;        // stop bit

  BSF         R2_PORT,R2_OUT ;!1      outp(1);

  INCF        R2_OUT_BIT,F   ;        out_bit++;

  RETURN

R2_DONE                      ;      } else {  

                             ;        // done sending

  CLRF        R2_OUT_BIT     ;        out_bit = 0;

                             ;      }

                             ;    }

                             ;  }

  RETURN                     ;}



;Send byte in W              ;void byte_send(int data)

R2_SEND                      ;{

  MOVWF       SCRATCH_1      ;  SCRATCH_1 = W;

R2_WHILE_SEND                ;  while (advance_ptr(in_ptr) == out_ptr) {}

  MOVF        R2_IN_PTR,W    ;    // wait while buffer full

  MOVWF       SCRATCH_2

  R2_ADV_PTR  SCRATCH_2

  MOVF        SCRATCH_2,W

  SUBWF       R2_OUT_PTR,W

  SKPNZ

  GOTO        R2_WHILE_SEND

  R2_ADV_PTR  R2_IN_PTR

  MOVF        R2_IN_PTR,W    ;  ring_buffer[in_ptr] = SCRATCH_1;

  MOVWF       FSR

  MOVF        SCRATCH_1,W    ;  W = SCRATCH_1;

  MOVWF       INDF

  RETURN                     ;}



;Check serial input     ;void ser_in(void) {

R2_SER_IN               ;{

  MOVF       R2_IN_BIT,W;  if (in_bit == 0) {

  SKPZ

  GOTO       R2_BUSY_IN ;    // not currently receiving

  IF R2_DUPLEX == FALSE ;    // check if currently sending byte

  TSTF        R2_OUT_BIT;    if ((out_bit != 0)&&(r2_duplex == false))

  SKPZ

  RETURN                ;      return;

  ENDIF ;R2_DUPLEX

  BTFSC    R2_PORT,R2_IN;    if (inp == 1) {

  RETURN                ;      // start bit detected

  MOVLW       R2_BAUD   ;      in_timer = r2_baud

  MOVWF       R2_IN_TIMER

  MOVLW       H'1'      ;      in_bit = 1

  MOVWF       R2_IN_BIT

  CLRF        R2_IN_BYTE;      in_byte = 0

  RETURN                ;    }

R2_BUSY_IN              ;  } else { // busy reading input

  DECF     R2_IN_TIMER,F;    in_timer --

  MOVF     R2_IN_TIMER,W;    if (in_timer == 0) {

  SKPZ

  RETURN                ;      // sample input line

  MOVLW       R2_BAUD   ;      in_timer = r2_baud

  MOVWF      R2_IN_TIMER

  MOVF       R2_IN_BIT,W;      if (in_bit == 9) {

  SUBLW       H'9'

  SKPZ

  GOTO        R2_TEST   ;        // done sampling

  CLRF        R2_IN_BIT ;        in_bit = 0

  MOVF      R2_IN_BYTE,W

  CALL      R2_NEW_BYTE ;        new_byte()

  RETURN

R2_TEST                 ;      } else // sample byte

  CLRC                  ;        clear carry

  BTFSC    R2_PORT,R2_IN;        if (inp == 1)

  SETC                  ;          set carry

  RRF       R2_IN_BYTE,F;        >> data

  INCF       R2_IN_BIT,F;        in_bit ++

                        ;      }

                        ;    }

                        ;  }

  RETURN                ;}



;Gets called when there is a new byte from rs232 serial line

;R2_NEW_BYTE

;  CALL        R2_SEND   ;echo to serial out

;  CALL        LCD_PRINT ;display

;  RETURN



ELSE          ;R2_ENABLE



R2_SEND       ;dummies if module not enabled

  RETURN



ENDIF         ;R2_ENABLE



;***** RS422/485 ROUTINES

;Default parameters are no parity, eight bits, one stop bit

IF   R4_ENABLE == TRUE  

;The quiescent state of the line is '1'.  A start bit is '0',

;and the data bits follow uninverted.  The stop bit is a '1'.

;Constants

  R4_BAUD     EQU       RUNSEC/D'9600'

  IF (RUNSEC != R4_BAUD*D'2400')

    CALL      INTSEC_ERROR

    ;R4_BAUD must be a whole number - adjust INTSEC or

    ;adjust the number of modules in use

  ENDIF

  R4_PORT     EQU       PORTB

  R4_IN       EQU       06H   ;Data input

  R4_OUT      EQU       07H   ;Data output

  R4_TRANON   EQU       05H   ;Transmit enable line (for RS485 only)

  R4_DUPLEX   EQU       TRUE  ;True for RS422, False for RS485



;Moves 'index' to next  ;int advance_ptr(int *index)

;element in ring buffer ;{

R4_ADV_PTR    MACRO     INDEX

  LOCAL       R4_END_ADV

  INCF        INDEX,F   ;  index++

  MOVF        INDEX,W   ;  if (index > last_buffer)

  SUBLW       R4_LAST_BUF

  SKPNC

  GOTO        R4_END_ADV

  MOVLW       R4_FIRST_BUF ;    index = first_buffer

  MOVWF       INDEX

R4_END_ADV              ;  return index

  ENDM                  ;}



;Inits for RS422/485 serial routines

R4_INIT

  ;serial ring buffer and status variables

  MOVLW    R4_FIRST_BUF ;out_ptr = first_buf;

  MOVWF       R4_OUT_PTR

  MOVLW    R4_FIRST_BUF ;in_ptr = first_buf;

  MOVWF       R4_IN_PTR

  CLRF        R4_OUT_BIT;out_bit = 0;

  CLRF        R4_IN_BIT ;in_bit = 0;

  MOVLW       H'1'      ;out_timer = 1;

  MOVWF       R4_OUT_TIMR

  ;setup serial port pins

  BSF         R4_PORT,R4_OUT     ;outp(1);

  PAGE_1

  BSF         TRISB^H'80',R4_IN  ;1 is input

  BCF         TRISB^H'80',R4_OUT ;0 is output

  PAGE_0

  RETURN



;Serial output routines      ;void serial_out()

R4_SER_OUT                   ;{

  TSTF        R4_OUT_BIT     ;  if (out_bit == 0) {

  SKPZ

  GOTO        R4_TIMER       ;    // idle, not sending

  IF R4_DUPLEX == FALSE      ;    // check if currently reading byte

  TSTF        R4_IN_BIT      ;    if ((in_bit != 0)&&(r2_duplex == false))

  SKPZ

  RETURN                     ;      return;

  ENDIF ;R4_DUPLEX

  MOVF        R4_OUT_PTR,W   ;    if (out_ptr != in_ptr) {

  SUBWF       R4_IN_PTR,W

  SKPNZ

  RETURN                     ;      // send next byte

  MOVLW       D'1'           ;      out_bit = 1;

  MOVWF       R4_OUT_BIT

  R4_ADV_PTR  R4_OUT_PTR     ;      advance_ptr(out_ptr);

  RETURN                     ;    }

R4_TIMER                     ;  } else {

  DECF        R4_OUT_TIMR,F  ;    out_timer--;

  MOVFW       R4_OUT_TIMR    ;    if (out_timer <= 0) {

  SUBLW       D'0'

  SKPC

  RETURN

  MOVLW       R4_BAUD        ;      out_timer = rn_baud;

  MOVWF       R4_OUT_TIMR

  MOVFW       R4_OUT_BIT     ;      if (out_bit == 1) {

  SUBLW       D'1'

  SKPZ

  GOTO        R4_TEST_1TO8   ;        // start bit

  IF R4_DUPLEX == FALSE      ;        // set enable if needed

  BSF       R4_PORT,R4_TRANON;        tx_enable = 1;

  ENDIF ;R4_DUPLEX

  BCF         R4_PORT,R4_OUT ;!0      outp(0);

  INCF        R4_OUT_BIT,F   ;        out_bit++

  RETURN

R4_TEST_1TO8

  MOVF        R4_OUT_BIT,W   ;      } else if (out_bit <= 9) {

  SUBLW       D'9'

  SKPC

  GOTO        R4_STOP        ;        // send bit

  MOVF        R4_OUT_PTR,W   ;        if (ring_buffer[out_ptr]&&0x01)

  MOVWF       FSR

  BTFSC       INDF,W

  BSF         R4_PORT,R4_OUT ;!1        outp(1);

  BTFSS       INDF,W         ;        else

  BCF         R4_PORT,R4_OUT ;!0        outp(0);

  RRF         INDF,F         ;        ring_buffer[out_ptr] =
ring_buffer[out_ptr] >> 1;

  INCF        R4_OUT_BIT,F   ;        out_bit++

  RETURN

R4_STOP

  MOVF        R4_OUT_BIT,W   ;      } else if (out_bit <= 10)

  SUBLW       D'10'

  SKPC

  GOTO        R4_DONE        ;        // stop bit

  BSF         R4_PORT,R4_OUT ;!1      outp(1);

  INCF        R4_OUT_BIT,F   ;        out_bit++;

  RETURN

R4_DONE                      ;      } else {  

                             ;        // done sending

  CLRF        R4_OUT_BIT     ;        out_bit = 0;

  IF R4_DUPLEX == FALSE      ;        // clear enable if needed

  BCF       R4_PORT,R4_TRANON;        tx_enable = 0;

  ENDIF ;R4_DUPLEX

                             ;      }

                             ;    }

                             ;  }

  RETURN                     ;}



;Send byte in W              ;void byte_send(int data)

R4_SEND                      ;{

  MOVWF       SCRATCH_1      ;  SCRATCH_1 = W;

R4_WHILE_SEND                ;  while (advance_ptr(in_ptr) == out_ptr) {}

  MOVF        R4_IN_PTR,W    ;    // wait while buffer full

  MOVWF       SCRATCH_2

  R4_ADV_PTR  SCRATCH_2

  MOVF        SCRATCH_2,W

  SUBWF       R4_OUT_PTR,W

  SKPNZ

  GOTO        R4_WHILE_SEND

  R4_ADV_PTR  R4_IN_PTR

  MOVF        R4_IN_PTR,W    ;  ring_buffer[in_ptr] = SCRATCH_1;

  MOVWF       FSR

  MOVF        SCRATCH_1,W    ;  W = SCRATCH_1;

  MOVWF       INDF

  RETURN                     ;}



;Check serial input     ;void ser_in(void) {

R4_SER_IN               ;{

  MOVF       R4_IN_BIT,W;  if (in_bit == 0) {

  SKPZ

  GOTO       R4_BUSY_IN ;    // not currently receiving

  IF R4_DUPLEX == FALSE ;    // check if currently sending byte

  TSTF        R4_OUT_BIT;    if ((out_bit != 0)&&(r2_duplex == false))

  SKPZ

  RETURN                ;      return;

  ENDIF ;R4_DUPLEX

  BTFSC    R4_PORT,R4_IN;    if (inp == 1) {

  RETURN                ;      // start bit detected

  MOVLW       R4_BAUD   ;      in_timer = r2_baud

  MOVWF       R4_IN_TIMER

  MOVLW       H'1'      ;      in_bit = 1

  MOVWF       R4_IN_BIT

  CLRF        R4_IN_BYTE;      in_byte = 0

  RETURN                ;    }

R4_BUSY_IN              ;  } else { // busy reading input

  DECF     R4_IN_TIMER,F;    in_timer --

  MOVF     R4_IN_TIMER,W;    if (in_timer == 0) {

  SKPZ

  RETURN                ;      // sample input line

  MOVLW       R4_BAUD   ;      in_timer = r2_baud

  MOVWF      R4_IN_TIMER

  MOVF       R4_IN_BIT,W;      if (in_bit == 9) {

  SUBLW       H'9'

  SKPZ

  GOTO        R4_TEST   ;        // done sampling

  CLRF        R4_IN_BIT ;        in_bit = 0

  MOVF      R4_IN_BYTE,W

  CALL      R4_NEW_BYTE ;        new_byte()

  RETURN

R4_TEST                 ;      } else // sample byte

  CLRC                  ;        clear carry

  BTFSC    R4_PORT,R4_IN;        if (inp == 1)

  SETC                  ;          set carry

  RRF       R4_IN_BYTE,F;        >> data

  INCF       R4_IN_BIT,F;        in_bit ++

                        ;      }

                        ;    }

                        ;  }

  RETURN                ;}



;Gets called when there is a new byte

;from serial line

R4_NEW_BYTE

  CALL        R4_SEND   ;echo to serial out

  CALL        LCD_PRINT ;display

  RETURN



ELSE          ;R4_ENABLE



R4_SEND       ;dummies if module not enabled

  RETURN



ENDIF         ;R4_ENABLE



;***** LCD ROUTINES

IF   LCD_ENABLE == TRUE

;Constants

; Connections for LCD:

  LCD_PORT    EQU       PORTB  ;data is on lower nibble of this port

  LCD_CNTRL   EQU       PORTB  ;control pins are on this port

  LCD_E       EQU       04H  ;Pin for Enable

  LCD_RS      EQU       05H  ;Pin for Register Select

; LCD_RW      make sure this is grounded

  LCD_I_DELAY EQU       03H  ;Delay time for LCD during init process

  LCD_T_DELAY EQU       01H  ;Delay time for LCD between characters



;Initialize lcd port.  This cannot be interrupted.

;Make sure General Interrupt Enable is clear.

LCD_INIT

  ;Setup Port direction

  PAGE_1

  BCF       LCD_PORT,W  ; 1 IS INPUT

  BCF       LCD_PORT,F  ; 0 IS OUTPUT

  BCF       LCD_PORT,2

  BCF       LCD_PORT,3

  BCF       LCD_CNTRL,LCD_E

  BCF       LCD_CNTRL,LCD_RS

  PAGE_0

  BSF       LCD_CNTRL,LCD_E  ; E

  BCF       LCD_CNTRL,LCD_RS ; RS



  ;Init LCD

  MOVLW     B'00000011'  ; 1

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE

  MOVLW     LCD_I_DELAY

  CALL      LCD_DELAY

  MOVLW     B'00000011'  ; 2

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE

  MOVLW     LCD_I_DELAY

  CALL      LCD_DELAY

  MOVLW     B'00000011'  ; 3

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE

  MOVLW     LCD_I_DELAY

  CALL      LCD_DELAY

  MOVLW     B'00000010'  ; 4

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE

  MOVLW     LCD_I_DELAY

  CALL      LCD_DELAY

  MOVLW     B'00000010'  ; 5

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE

  MOVLW     LCD_I_DELAY

  CALL      LCD_DELAY

  MOVLW     B'00000100'  ; 5B system set

                         ; 0000 also works

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE

  MOVLW     LCD_I_DELAY

  CALL      LCD_DELAY

  MOVLW     B'00000000'  ; 6

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE

  MOVLW     LCD_I_DELAY

  CALL      LCD_DELAY

  MOVLW     B'00001000'  ; 6B

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE

  MOVLW     LCD_I_DELAY

  CALL      LCD_DELAY

  MOVLW     B'00000000'  ; 7

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE

  MOVLW     LCD_I_DELAY

  CALL      LCD_DELAY

  MOVLW     B'00000001'  ; 7B

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE

  MOVLW     LCD_I_DELAY

  CALL      LCD_DELAY

  MOVLW     B'00000000'  ; 8

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE

  MOVLW     LCD_I_DELAY

  CALL      LCD_DELAY

  MOVLW     B'00000110'  ; 8B entry mode set

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE   ; 101 cursor stays put, screen scrolls right

  MOVLW     LCD_I_DELAY

  CALL      LCD_DELAY    ; 111 cursor stays put, screen scrolls left

                         ; 110 cursor moves right, screen stays put

                         ; 100 same as 111

  MOVLW     B'00000000'  ; 9

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE

  MOVLW     LCD_I_DELAY

  CALL      LCD_DELAY

  MOVLW     B'00001101'  ; 9B 1111 cursor on and blink

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE   ;    1101 cursor on and blink

  MOVLW     LCD_I_DELAY

  CALL      LCD_DELAY    ;    1110 cursor off

                         ;    1100 cursor off

  RETURN



;Send command/data byte to lcd port

LCD_PRINT                ;lcd_print(W)

  MOVWF     SCRATCH_1    ;SCRATCH_1 = W;

  ;Check if cursor position command

  ANDLW     H'F0'        ;if (msb == 1) {

  SUBLW     H'10'

  SKPZ

  GOTO      LCD_CHAR

  MOVFW     SCRATCH_1    ;  position cursor

  ANDLW     H'0F'

  IORLW     H'80'

  CALL      LCD_INSTRUCT

  MOVFW     SCRATCH_1    ;  W = SCRATCH_1;

  RETURN                 ;} else {

LCD_CHAR    ;display character

  BSF       LCD_CNTRL,LCD_RS ;data

  SWAPF     SCRATCH_1,W  ;  get upper nibble

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE

  MOVFW     SCRATCH_1    ;  get lower nibble

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE

  MOVLW     LCD_T_DELAY

  CALL      LCD_DELAY

  MOVFW     SCRATCH_1    ;  W = SCRATCH_1;

  RETURN                 ;}



;Send instruction byte to lcd port

LCD_INSTRUCT

  BCF       LCD_CNTRL,LCD_RS ;instruction

  MOVWF     SCRATCH_1    ;store byte

  SWAPF     SCRATCH_1,W  ;get upper nibble

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE

  MOVFW     SCRATCH_1    ;get lower nibble

  CALL      LCD_NIBBLE

  MOVFW     SCRATCH_1    ;restore W

  RETURN



;Send nibble to lcd port

LCD_NIBBLE

  BSF       LCD_CNTRL,LCD_E ; latch control

  ANDLW     0FH

  MOVWF     SCRATCH_2

  MOVFW     LCD_PORT

  ANDLW     H'F0'

  IORWF     SCRATCH_2,W

  MOVWF     LCD_PORT

  MOVWF     LCD_PORT        ; extra delay

  BCF       LCD_CNTRL,LCD_E ; latch data

  RETURN



;Delay time for lcd, delay constant in W register. 1 = minimum delay

LCD_DELAY

  MOVWF       TIMER_HI  ; Use TIMER_HI and TIMER_LO

  CLRF        TIMER_LO

LCD_TIME_LOOP       

  DECFSZ      TIMER_LO,F; Delay time = TIMER_HI * ((3 * 256) + 3) * Tcy

  GOTO        LCD_TIME_LOOP

  DECFSZ      TIMER_HI,F

  GOTO        LCD_TIME_LOOP

  RETURN



;Print number in W to LCD as three digit BCD

LCD_BCD

  MOVWF       SCRATCH_1

  MOVWF       LSD

  CLRF        MSD

  MOVLW       .200

  SUBWF       LSD,W

  SKPC

  GOTO        LCD_BIN_1

  MOVWF       LSD       ;save number<100

  MOVLW       '2'

  CALL        LCD_PRINT ;print 100s

  GOTO        LCD_TWO_DIGIT

LCD_BIN_1

  MOVLW       .100

  SUBWF       LSD,W

  SKPC

  GOTO        LCD_BIN_0

  MOVWF       LSD       ;save number<100

  MOVLW       '1'

  CALL        LCD_PRINT ;print 100s

  GOTO        LCD_TWO_DIGIT

LCD_BIN_0

  MOVLW       ' '

  CALL        LCD_PRINT ;print 100s

LCD_TWO_DIGIT

  MOVLW       .10       ;check how many 10s

  SUBWF       LSD,W     ; in the input

  SKPC

  GOTO        LCD_DIGITS ;done

  MOVWF       LSD       ;move 10 from LSD

  INCF        MSD,F     ; to MSD

  GOTO        LCD_TWO_DIGIT

LCD_DIGITS

  MOVFW       MSD

  ADDLW       '0'

  CALL        LCD_PRINT

  MOVFW       LSD

  ADDLW       '0'

  CALL        LCD_PRINT

  MOVFW       SCRATCH_1

  RETURN



ELSE          ;LCD_ENABLE



LCD_PRINT     ;dummies if lcd module not enabled

  RETURN

LCD_BCD

  RETURN



ENDIF         ;LCD_ENABLE



;***** INFRA RED ROUTINES

IF   IR_ENABLE == TRUE

;Constants

  IR_PORT     EQU       PORTA     ;Port and pins

  IR_IN       EQU       3H        ;for IR port

  IR_OUT      EQU       4H        ;See GEN_INIT for more

  IR_DWELL    EQU       H'FF'     ;longest delay

  IR_30       EQU       (RUNSEC * D'30')/D'10000'

  IR_24       EQU       (RUNSEC * D'24')/D'10000'

  IR_18       EQU       (RUNSEC * D'18')/D'10000'

  IR_12       EQU       (RUNSEC * D'12')/D'10000'

  IR_10       EQU       (RUNSEC * D'10')/D'10000'

  IR_09       EQU       (RUNSEC * D'09')/D'10000'

  IR_06       EQU       (RUNSEC * D'06')/D'10000'

  IR_03       EQU       (RUNSEC * D'03')/D'10000'

  IR_DEBUG    EQU       FALSE



IR_INIT

  ;Registers

  CLRF        IR_DEV         ;ir_dev = 0;

  CLRF        IR_DATA        ;ir_data = 0;

  CLRF        IR_PHASE       ;ir_phase = 0;

  BSF         IR_PHASE,7     ;ir_phase,7 = 1;

  MOVLW       IR_10          ;ir_timer = IR_10;

  MOVWF       IR_TIMER

  CLRF        IR_O_DEV       ;ir_o_dev = 0;

  CLRF        IR_O_DATA      ;ir_o_data = 0;

  CLRF        IR_O_PHASE     ;ir_o_phase = 0;

  CLRF        IR_O_TIMER     ;ir_o_timer = 0;

  CLRF        IR_O_COUNT     ;ir_o_count = 0;

  ;IO Port.  See GEN_INIT for background operation of Port

  PAGE_1

  BSF         IR_PORT,IR_IN

  BCF         IR_PORT,IR_OUT

  PAGE_0

  BCF         IR_PORT,IR_OUT ;output(0);

  RETURN



;Increment 'ir_timer' until 0xFF

IR_INC_COUNT  MACRO

  MOVLW       H'FF'          ;if(ir_timer != 0xff)

  SUBWF       IR_TIMER,W

  SKPZ

  INCF        IR_TIMER,F     ;  ir_timer++;

  ENDM



;Decode length of pulse

IR_BIT        MACRO

  MOVLW       IR_30          ;if (ir_timer > IR_30) {

  SUBWF       IR_TIMER,W     ;  // false trigger

  SKPC

  GOTO        IR_ELSE_SY

  CLRF        IR_PHASE       ;  ir_phase = 0;

  IF IR_DEBUG == TRUE

    MOVLW       'L'

    CALL        LCD_PRINT

  ENDIF

  GOTO        IR_ELSE_END

IR_ELSE_SY

  MOVLW       IR_18          ;} else if (ir_timer > IR_18) {

  SUBWF       IR_TIMER,W     ;  // sync pulse is 2.4 msec nominal

  SKPC

  GOTO        IR_ELSE_LONG

  CLRF        IR_DEV         ;  ir_dev = 0;

  CLRF        IR_DATA        ;  ir_data = 0;

  MOVLW       D'1'           ;  ir_phase = 1;

  MOVWF       IR_PHASE

  IF IR_DEBUG == TRUE

    MOVLW       'S'

    CALL        LCD_PRINT

  ENDIF

  GOTO        IR_ELSE_END

IR_ELSE_LONG

  MOVLW       IR_09          ;} else if (ir_timer > IR_09) {

  SUBWF       IR_TIMER,W     ;  // long hi, logic 1

  SKPC

  GOTO        IR_ELSE_SHORT

  ;Store '1'

  MOVLW       D'8'           ;  if (ir_phase > 8) {

  SUBWF       IR_PHASE,W

  SKPC

  GOTO        IR_1_ELSE

  SETC                       ;    carry set

  RRF         IR_DEV,F       ;    ir_dev >>

  GOTO        IR_1_END       ;  }

IR_1_ELSE

  MOVLW       D'0'           ;  else if (ir_phase > 0) {

  SUBWF       IR_PHASE,W

  SKPC

  GOTO        IR_1_END

  BSF         IR_DATA,7      ;    ir_data,7 = 1

  CLRC

  RRF         IR_DATA,F

IR_1_END                     ;  }

  INCF        IR_PHASE,F     ;  ir_phase++;

  IF IR_DEBUG == TRUE

    MOVLW       '1'

    CALL        LCD_PRINT

  ENDIF

  GOTO        IR_ELSE_END

IR_ELSE_SHORT

  MOVLW       IR_03          ;} else if (ir_timer > IR_03) {

  SUBWF       IR_TIMER,W     ;  // short hi, logic 0

  SKPC

  GOTO        IR_ELSE_BAD

  ;Store '0'

  MOVLW       D'8'           ;  if (ir_phase > 8) {

  SUBWF       IR_PHASE,W

  SKPC

  GOTO        IR_0_ELSE

  CLRC

  RRF         IR_DEV,F       ;    ir_dev >> with carry clear

  GOTO        IR_0_END       ;  }

IR_0_ELSE

  MOVLW       D'0'           ;  else if (ir_phase > 0) {

  SUBWF       IR_PHASE,W

  SKPC

  GOTO        IR_0_END

  CLRC                       ;     ir_data >> with carry clear

  RRF         IR_DATA,F

IR_0_END                     ;  }

  INCF        IR_PHASE,F     ;  ir_phase++;

  IF IR_DEBUG == TRUE

    MOVLW       '0'

    CALL        LCD_PRINT

  ENDIF

  GOTO        IR_ELSE_END

IR_ELSE_BAD                  ;} else {  // false trigger

  CLRF        IR_PHASE       ;  ir_phase = 0;

  IF IR_DEBUG == TRUE

    MOVLW       'B'

    CALL        LCD_PRINT

  ENDIF

IR_ELSE_END                  ;}

  ENDM



;Long IR off elapsed, check for valid stream

IR_CHECK_NEW  MACRO

  MOVLW       IR_06          ;if (ir_timer > IR_06) {

  SUBWF       IR_TIMER,W

  SKPC

  GOTO        IR_C_END

  MOVLW       H'90'          ;  if (ir_phase == 16) {

  SUBWF       IR_PHASE,W     ;    // 8 bit device code

  SKPZ

  GOTO        IR_C_ELSE      ;    // no further processing needed

  CALL        IR_NEW         ;    new_ir();

  GOTO        IR_C_CLEAN

IR_C_ELSE

  MOVLW       H'8D'          ;  else if (ir_phase == 12)

  SUBWF       IR_PHASE,W     ;    // 5 bit device code

  SKPZ

  GOTO        IR_C_CLEAN     ;    // justify properly

  CLRC                       ;    ir_dev >> 3

  RRF         IR_DEV,F

  RRF         IR_DEV,F

  RRF         IR_DEV,F

  CALL        IR_NEW         ;    new_ir();

IR_C_CLEAN                   ;  }

  MOVLW       H'80'

  MOVWF       IR_PHASE       ;  ir_phase = 0;    

IR_C_END

  ENDM                       ;}



;Sample IR

IR_GET

  BTFSS       IR_PORT,IR_IN  ;if (ir_input == 1) 

  GOTO        IR_ON          ;{    // ir off

  BTFSC       IR_PHASE,7     ;  if (ir_phase,7 = 0) 

  GOTO        IR_WAS_OFF     ;  {  // was on before

  IR_BIT                     ;    check_bit(ir_timer);

  BSF         IR_PHASE,7     ;    ir_phase,7 = 1;

  CLRF        IR_TIMER       ;    ir_timer = 0;

IR_WAS_OFF                   ;  }

  IR_CHECK_NEW               ;  check_new();

  IR_INC_COUNT               ;  increment ir_timer if needed

  GOTO IR_END                ;} else 

IR_ON                        ;{    // ir on

  BTFSS       IR_PHASE,7     ;  if (ir_phase,7 = 1) 

  GOTO        IR_WAS_ON      ;  {  // was off before

  BCF         IR_PHASE,7     ;    ir_phase,7 = 0;

  CLRF        IR_TIMER       ;    ir_timer = 0;

IR_WAS_ON                    ;  }

  IR_INC_COUNT               ;  increment ir_timer if needed

IR_END                       ;}

  RETURN



;Act on new IR command.  Device is in IR_DEV and data is in IR_DATA

IR_NEW

  MOVLW       'D'

  CALL        LCD_PRINT

  MOVLW       '='

  CALL        LCD_PRINT

  MOVFW       IR_DEV

  CALL        LCD_BCD

  MOVLW       ' '

  CALL        LCD_PRINT



  MOVLW       'C'

  CALL        LCD_PRINT

  MOVLW       '='

  CALL        LCD_PRINT

  MOVFW       IR_DATA

  CALL        LCD_BCD

  MOVLW       H'10'

  CALL        LCD_PRINT

  RETURN



;Send data in ir_dev and ir_data.  Does not restore W register

IR_SEND

                             ;// wait until interrupt routine is done

  TSTF        IR_O_PHASE     ;while (ir_o_phase != 0) {//wait}

  SKPZ

  GOTO        IR_SEND

  TSTF        IR_O_TIMER     ;while (ir_o_timer != 0) {//wait}

  SKPZ

  GOTO        IR_SEND

  TSTF        IR_O_COUNT     ;while (ir_o_count != 0) {//wait}

  SKPZ

  GOTO        IR_SEND



  MOVLW       D'2'           ;// reload for new tx

  MOVWF       IR_O_COUNT     ;ir_o_count = 2; // send twice

  RETURN

                                                

;Use interrupts to transmit IR command

IR_PUT

  MOVLW       D'1'           ;if (ir_o_timer >= 1) {

  SUBWF       IR_O_TIMER,W   ;  // wait time in effect

  SKPC

  GOTO        IR_QUIET

  DECF        IR_O_TIMER,F   ;  ir_o_timer --;

  GOTO        IR_O_END  

IR_QUIET                     ;} else if (ir_o_phase == 0) {

  TSTF        IR_O_PHASE     ;  // done transmitting packet

  SKPZ

  GOTO        IR_SYNC        ;  // check if any more

DEBUG_IR

  BCF         IR_PORT,IR_OUT ;  output(0);

  MOVLW       D'1'           ;  if ( ir_o_count >= 1 ) {

  SUBWF       IR_O_COUNT,W

  SKPC

  GOTO        IR_O_END       ;    // reload for new tx

  DECF        IR_O_COUNT,F   ;    ir_t_cout --;

  MOVFW       IR_T_DEV       ;    ir_o_dev  = ir_t_dev;

  MOVWF       IR_O_DEV

  MOVFW       IR_T_DATA      ;    ir_o_data = ir_t_data;

  MOVWF       IR_O_DATA

  MOVLW       D'1'           ;    ir_o_phase = 1;

  MOVWF       IR_O_PHASE

  GOTO        IR_O_END       ;  }

IR_SYNC                      ;} else if (ir_o_phase == 1) {

  MOVLW       D'1'           ;  // send sync

  SUBWF       IR_O_PHASE,W

  SKPZ

  GOTO        IR_LOW

  INCF        IR_O_PHASE,F   ;  ir_o_phase++;

  BSF         IR_PORT,IR_OUT ;  output(1);

  MOVLW       IR_24          ;  ir_o_timer = IR_24;

  MOVWF       IR_O_TIMER

  GOTO        IR_O_END

IR_LOW                       ;} else if (ir_o_phase,W == 0) {

  BTFSC       IR_O_PHASE,W   ;  // send low

  GOTO        IR_HIGH        ;  // ir_phase == 2,4,6, etc.

  BCF         IR_PORT,IR_OUT ;  output(0);

  ;check if transmission over

  MOVLW       D'26'          ;  if (ir_o_phase == 26) {

  SUBWF       IR_O_PHASE,W

  SKPZ

  GOTO        IR_DONE15      ;    // setup to continue transmission

  INCF        IR_O_PHASE,F   ;    ir_o_phase++;

  MOVLW       IR_06          ;    ir_o_timer = IR_06;

  TSTF        IR_O_DEV       ;    if (ir_o_dev == 0) { // test if continue
tx

  SKPZ

  GOTO        IR_O_END

  CLRF        IR_O_PHASE     ;      ir_o_phase = 0;  // stop transmission

  MOVLW       IR_DWELL       ;      ir_o_timer = IR_DWELL; // space out
messages

  MOVWF       IR_O_TIMER     ;    }

  GOTO        IR_O_END       ;  }

IR_DONE15                    ;  else if (ir_o_phase == 32) {

  MOVLW       D'32'

  SUBWF       IR_O_PHASE,W

  SKPZ

  GOTO        IR_PROCEED

  CLRF        IR_O_PHASE     ;    ir_o_phase = 0;    // stop transmission

  MOVLW       IR_24          ;    ir_o_timer = IR_24; // space out messages

  MOVWF       IR_O_TIMER

  GOTO        IR_O_END

IR_PROCEED                   ;  } else { // continue transmission

  INCF        IR_O_PHASE,F   ;    ir_o_phase++;

  MOVLW       IR_06          ;    ir_o_timer = IR_06;

  MOVWF       IR_O_TIMER

  GOTO        IR_O_END       ;  }

IR_HIGH                      ;} else 

  ;send high

  BSF         IR_PORT,IR_OUT ;  output(1);

  MOVLW       IR_06          ;  ir_o_timer = IR_06;

  MOVWF       IR_O_TIMER

  MOVLW       D'17'          ;  if (ir_o_phase >= 17) {

  SUBWF       IR_O_PHASE,W

  SKPC

  GOTO        IR_SEND_DEV    ;    // send device bit

  CLRC                       ;    clear carry

  RRF         IR_O_DEV,F     ;    ir_o_dev >>

  GOTO        IR_SELECT_OK

IR_SEND_DEV                  ;  } else {

                             ;    // send data bit

  CLRC                       ;    clear carry

  RRF         IR_O_DATA,F    ;    ir_o_data >>

IR_SELECT_OK                 ;  }

  ;select length of pulse

  SKPC                       ;  if (carry) {

  GOTO        IR_OUTDONE

  ;output long high (1)

  MOVLW       IR_12          ;    ir_o_timer = IR_12;

  MOVWF       IR_O_TIMER

IR_OUTDONE                   ;  }

  INCF        IR_O_PHASE,F   ;  ir_o_phase++;

IR_O_END                     ;}

  RETURN

ENDIF         ;IR_ENABLE



;***** END OF FILE *****

 





Date: Sat, 1 Apr 1995 18:34:20

I developped a home automation program in Visual Basic : James 1.0
You can think of James as a butler. He is capable of  controling electrical
and IR controled apparatus. James can be controled by  voice, by a ædiaryÆ
database, by mouse or by keyboard.
James gives information via the Pcscreen or speeks to you : he can say
ascii or play wav files.
 
For the voice recognition, I use a Tandy Voice recognition card and the
accompanied software Voicekey. The IR module is based on a Siemens 
SFH50630 and is made according the guidelines of Chris Dodge
 (See :
http://alfred1.u.washington.edu:8080/~pfloyd/ee/circuits/PCIR/Welcome
.html)
To control the electrical apparatus, you can use the Velleman K8000 kit
or use X10 modules and control them via IR. No need for a x10 controler.
I use the X10 Powermid transmitters, they are capable of transmitting IR
from one room to another. 

I  use a audiopro soundcard but any soundblaster compatible card will do
Almost everyting is database controled. I use the  MS access 2.0 database
engine.

When you start the program, James shows you a number of rooms. 
You can define, create, change the rooms  yourself. Each room is 
represented by a bitmap (changeable via the standard windows software 
Paintbrush)  A mouseclick on a room shows all the apparatus 
(also represented by bitmaps, two actually, one for the on status and one
for the off status) you defined for that room. A mouseclick on an apparatus 
( or a a push on a keyboard key you attached to the apparatus) ,  changes
its
status. You can define groups of apparatus (for example all the lights in
the 
living room) and attach a key to the group so the status of all the members 
of the group changes when you press the key. (You can even define groups
within groups)

In the same way you can group apparatus, you can group IR signals an attach
a key to the group. Pushing the key ( or generating it by voicecontrol)
results
in sending all the IR signals in the group.

Every minute, the program checks the ædiaryÆ database.(Ms access 2.0). 
In this diary, you can tell James to play a wav file, say an ascci tekst, 
put an apparatus (or a group) on or off, send an ir signal (or a group of ir

signals), say the time, start any external program..
 
To make it short a few practial examples of what is possible with James 1.0

I call James,  he says æYesÆ , and then I have 5 seconds to say a voice
command.  
  fi    When I say dollar, James puts on the television ( if it was already
on, 
        the television shows the selected channel, goes to BRT 1 (the wanted

        channel),  puts on teletext     mode, and selects page 540 where I
can find
        the wanted valuta information. None of this is hard coded, James
gets
all 
        the information out of the Msaccess database.
        When my little daughter says æSamsonÆ ( its a childrens program like
big
        bird), James puts on the televison, selects the video channel, and
starts 
        playing the samson video 
                
Why this information ?

To check the overall interest in a program like James, to see if it is worth
putting
a  shareware version on the internet. To find some place where I can put 
html-pages about James.
I hope to get a lot of reactions .

Benny Hooyberghs
email : bhooyber@innet.be









Date: Tue, 7 Feb 1995 09:00:30 -0700
To all X-10 hackers:

I recently posted my intention of uploading, to an FTP site, drawing files 
of the component placement, PC board layout and schematics for the X-10 
2-way and 3-way wallswitches.  I have been trying to find out how to get 
them to the comp.home.automation WWW site, but I haven't heard from the 
WWW keeper there.  However, I just finished uploading them to another FTP 
site (ftp://ilces.ag.uiuc.edu/tmp/) which is an interim location until they 
get moved to the ASRE archives at ftp://mrcnext.cso.uiuc.edu/asre/. 

I don't know when the transfer will take place, but I suppose you can look 
in both locations.  The seven files all have the form: "wall_*.*" and
includes a descriptive text file. A cursory inspection reveals that there
are 
two L1s on the component layout drawing.  I believe the lower one should be
L2.

I replaced the triac with Digi-Key's part no.L4008L6-ND.  This part is 
rated for 8 Amps@400V.  I refrained from using the often quoted part from
Radio Shack (#276-1000) because a Mr. Module article described them as not
having an isolated tab.  That is VERY important for this application.  The
unit from Digi-Key has an isolated tab and costs $2.09

I would like to make a few observations.  

1) I have heard of and measured (using my cap. meter) a 0.1uF capacitor
  between the red and blue wire of the companion switch.
2) The -VDC is -15Volts.
3) CR6 should be a 15 Volt Zener, it regulates the -VDC.
4) The fusible link was omitted, it is in series with SW1.
5) There are two L1s in the 'Component Side View'.  The smaller one is
  probably L2.
6) If one considers the black wire to be common (instead of +VDC) analysis
  of the circuit becomes easier.

Repair tips
1) Definitely use a GFCI outlet.
2) Connect Black wire to neutral (wire in lamp according to your
preference).
  The neutral is the wider of the two blades on a plug.
3) For waveform or voltage measurements connect between black wire and node.
4) A convenient point for power supply voltage measurement is the wire '
  loop' of R5.  This should be at least -15V, if not check R8. 
5) Connect to R3 and push the wall switch button to check for low-duty-cycle
  square wave.  This confirms the chip is trying to switch on the load.
  If the lamp is still not lit, suspect triac.
6) If no square wave at (5), check for 60Hz at pin 6.  If none suspect
  1/2 watt R7.
6) To reinsert the PC board, remove the metal front, then snap out the 
  slide shutoff switch.
7) While you have the whole thing disassembled, you might as well install
  the local dimming mod.


>Trying to X-10 in my house, I have a number of places where controllers on 
>on one side can't control a module on the other side - a classic case of
>the signal not being able to cross phases correctly. (I've tested this by
>
>But, an idea occurred to me. I've got an unused 220v dryer outlet (we
>switched to gas). Could I put something together, plug it into the 
>dryer outlet, and Viola! my phases are coupled? Cheap, easy to install,
>easy to deinstall if I decide to move. Sounds perfect!

Yup, been there, done that.

I plugged in a 0.05uF, 600 Volt ceramic capacitor in my dryer outlet to
use as my signal bridge.  It is supposedly not as good as the real
Leviton signal bridge, but it was also nearly free, and has worked for
several years.

Obdisclaimer: when working near 220V, turn off the breaker, cut off all
power to the house, stand on rubber sheets, wear a rubber suit, and hire
someone to do the electrical work.

An even easier solution worked for me.  First, you should use a capacitor
that is UL listed for across-the-line connection.  Radio Shack sells one
that is .01uf, 2kv I think.  Next, you can put it across the outputs of any
220v circuit breaker (turn it off first) if you are careful working inside
the box there.  I found the easiest way was to simply wedge the leads in,
and position the capacitor in a stable position where it can't short
anything.
 
X10 FAQ version 1.08 (8 Jan 95) 
 
 
CHANGES SINCE LAST VERSION
 
Global FAQ structure changed to aid automatic parsing.  Details posted to 
comp.home.automation or available from address above.  This may evolve in 
future versions of the FAQ.  Suggestions and comments welcome. 
 
Q107.  How do I solve common X10 problems?  Rewritten.
Q110.  Where do I get X10 software for my computer? Added another source.
Q113.  How do I control fluorescent and halogen lights with X10?  
Completely rewritten. 
Q116.  Can I use X10 components outside?  New question.
Q117.  What are the various combinations of X10 wireless receivers and 
transmitters that work together?  New question.
Q118.  How do I make the motion detector floodlight unit work properly? New 
question. 
Q508.  How do I repair a "blown" lamp module? Minor changes, alternate 
source for triac.
Section 2:  added some Radio Shack part numbers for existing descriptions
 
</FAQ CHANGES>
 
<FAQ OUTLINE>
 
OUTLINE
 
SECTION 1:  General Information
Q101.  What is X10?
Q102.  What sort of X10 transmitters exist?
Q103.  What sort of X10 receivers exist? 
Q104.  How many different units can X10 handle? 
Q105.  Who makes X10 components?
Q106.  Who sells X10 components?
Q107.  How do I solve common X10 problems? 
Q108.  Will X10 work on 220/240V? 
Q109.  How do I send and receive X10 signals with my computer? 
Q110.  Where do I get X10 software for my computer?
Q111.  Where do I look for more information on X10?
Q112.  How should I design the wiring of my new home to accommodate X10?
Q113.  How do I control fluorescent and halogen lights with X10? 
Q114.  Can I use X10 in a three-way light switching application?
Q115.  What is PLIX?
Q116.  Can I use X10 components outside?
Q117.  What are the various combinations of X10 wireless receivers and 
transmitters that work together? 
Q118.  How do I make the motion detector floodlight unit work properly?
 
SECTION 2:  Information on X10 Components 
 
SECTION 3:  Details on X10 Protocol 
 
SECTION 4:  Programming details for CP290 Home Control Interface 
 
SECTION 5:  Modifications to X10 hardware 
 
Q501.  How do I modify appliance modules for momentary operation? 
Q502.  How do I add local dimming capability to wall switch modules? 
Q503.  How do I modify the maxi-controller to accommodate more than 16 
units?
Q504.  How do I modify the mini-controller to control more units? 
Q505.  How do I modify the mini-controller to control all units for a 
single housecode?
Q506.  How do I modify the mini-controller to control only units 9-12 or 
13-16?
Q507.  How do I modify the mini-controller for momentary operation? 
Q508.  How do I repair a "blown" lamp module? 
Q509.  How do I defeat local control of lights and appliances? 
Q510.  How do I add a relay output to the power horn? 
 
</FAQ OUTLINE>
 
<FAQ BODY>
 
<FAQ SECTION 1>
 
SECTION 1:  GENERAL INFORMATION 
===============================
 
 
Q101.  What is X10? 
 
A101.  X10 is a communications protocol for remote control of electrical
devices.  It is designed for communications between X10 transmitters and
X10 receivers which communicate on standard household wiring.  Transmitters
and receivers generally plug into standard electrical outlets although some
must be hardwired into electrical boxes.  Transmitters send commands such
as "turn on", "turn off" or "dim" preceded by the identification of the
receiver unit to be controlled.  This broadcast goes out over the
electrical wiring in a building.  Each receiver is set to a certain unit
ID, and reacts only to commands addressed to it.  Receivers ignore commands
not addressed to them.
 
Note that "X-10" is a trademark of X-10 (USA) Incorporated an possibly of
X-10 Home Controls Incorporated (in Canada) as well.  This FAQ uses "X10"
unless referring specifically to a product of the holder of the "X-10"
trademark.
 
 
Q102.  What sort of X10 transmitters exist? 
 
A102.  The simplest X10 transmitter is a small control box with buttons.
The buttons select which unit is to be controlled, and which control
function is to be sent to the selected units (e.g. "turn on", "all units
off", etc).  There are also clock timer transmitters which can be
programmed to send X10 commands at certain times.  Some of these can be
programmed with buttons on the timer; some must be connected to a computer
to select the times.  There are other special purpose transmitters that
send certain X10 commands at sunup or sundown, upon detecting movement, or
as commanded by tones over a telephone.  This is not an all inclusive list,
and more detail on specific transmitters is given in Section 2. 
 
 
Q103.  What sort of X10 receivers exist? 
 
A103.  The simplest X10 receiver is a small module with an electrical plug 
(to connect to a standard wall outlet), an electrical outlet (to provide 
controlled power to the device it's controlling) and two dials (to set the 
unit ID code) on it.  An appliance module has relay inside which switches 
power to its outlet on or off in response to X10 commands directed to it. A 
lamp module is similar, but has a triac instead of a relay and will respond 
to dimming commands as well as on or off commands.  Other receivers can be 
wired into wall outlets or into lamp fixtures.  Note that the standard wall 
switch (X10:WS467) is a receiver, not a transmitter; it does not transmit 
X10 commands, and only takes action when it receives the appropriate 
X10 command or local button-push. 
 
 
Q104.  How many different units can X10 handle? 
 
A104.  X10 specifies a total of 256 different addresses:  16 unit codes (1-
16) for each of 16 house codes (A-P).  Normally a transmitter is set to a
certain house code (generally selectable by means of a dial) and so can
control at most 16 unit codes.  There is no restriction on using multiple
transmitters each set to a different house code on the same wiring.  Also,
several receivers could be set to the same house code and unit code so a
single command issued by an X10 transmitter could control multiple
receivers in parallel.
 
 
Q105.  Who makes X10 components?
 
A105.  Many different companies either make and/or distribute X10
components under different names.  Some types are sold by more than one
company (probably made by same OEM).  Some are specific to only one
company.  Not all companies handle the complete range of components.  Some
companies selling X10 components and their associated product names are: 
 
 - Radio Shack:  Plug 'N Power
 
 - Leviton:   Decora Electronic Controls
        Leviton Mfg. Co. Inc.           Leviton Manufacturing of Canada
        59-25 Little Neck Pkwy          165 Hymus Blvd
        Little Neck, NY  11362-2591    Point Claire, QC  H9R 1G2
        (718) 229-4040
        (800) 824-3005
 
 - Stanley:  Light Minder 
 
 - X-10:  Powerhouse 
        X-10 (USA) Inc.                 X-10 Home Controls Inc.
        91 Ruckman Road, Box 420         1200 Aerowood Drive, Unit 20
        Closter, NJ  07624-0420          Mississauga, Ont  L4W 2S7
        (201) 784-9700                  (416) 624-4446
        (800) 526-0027                   (800) 387-3346
        x10usa@aol.com
 
 
Q106.  Who sells X10 components?
 
A106.  The following companies are alleged to sell X10 components in North 
America.  See Q108 for outside North America.  Listing in this FAQ is not 
an endorsement or recommendation of any kind: 
 
 Baran-Harper Group Inc.
 77 Drakefield Road
 Markham, ON  L3P 1G9
 Help/Info:    (905) 294-6473
 Orders only:  (800) 661-6508
 Fax:     (905) 471-3730
 BBS1:    (905) 471-9574
 BBS2:    (905) 471-6776
 
 Canadian Control and Automation Ltd
 7 Wincanton Rd.
 Markham, Ontario CANADA
 L3S-3H3
 Phone:   (905) 470-9121
 FAX:     (905) 568-3658
 
 Complete Home Automation
 Phone:   (800) 766-4226 (doesn't work in Canada)
 
 Home Automation, Inc.
 2709 Ridgelake Dr.
 Metairie, LA 70002
 Phone:   (504) 833-7256
 Fax:     (504) 833-7258
 
 Home Automation Laboratories
 5500 Highlands Pkwy, Suite 450
 Smyrna, GA 30082-5141
 Orders:  (800) 466-3522
 Catalog: (800) 935-4425
 Help:    (404) 319-6000
 Fax:     (404) 438-2835 (is this the right number?)
          (404) 410-1122 (is this the right number?)
 BBS:     (404) 319-6227 (300-14.4,8,N,1)
 
 Home Automation and Security
 286 Ridgedale Ave.
 East Hanover, NJ 07936
 Orders:  (800) 254-5950
 Help:    (201) 887-1117
 Fax:     (201) 887-5170
 
 Home Automation Systems, Inc.
 151 Kalmus Drive, Suite M6
 Costa Mesa, CA 92626
 Orders:  (800) 762-7846 (doesn't work in Canada)
          (800) 367-9836 (supposedly works in Canada, but doesn't really)
 Help:    (714) 708-0610 (also for orders from outside US)
 Fax:     (714) 708-0614
 
 Home Control Concepts
 9520 Padgett St. Suite 108
 San Diego, CA 92126
 Orders:  (800) 266-8765 (doesn't work in Canada)
 Help:    (619) 693-8887
 Fax  :   (619) 693-8892
 
 Hybrid Technical Systems, Inc.
 4765 Franchise Street
 Charleston, SC 29418
 Orders:  (800) 289-2001 (doesn't work in Canada)
 America Online:  HybridTech
 Compuserve:    71561,2604
 
 JaMar Distributing
 1292 Montclair Drive, 
 Pasadena, MD  21222
 Orders:  (800) 477-8142 (doesn't work in Canada)
 Fax:     (410) 437-3757
 Help:    (410) 437-4181
 
 JDS Technologies
 16750 W. Bernardo Drive
 San Diego, CA 92127
 Orders:     (800) 983-5537
 Help:       (619) 487-8787
 Fax:        (619) 451-2799
 
 Marrick Limited
 P.O. Box 950940
 Lake Mary, FL 32795
 Phone:      (407) 323-4467
 Fax:        (407) 324-1291
 BBS:        (407) 322-1429
 
 MicroMint
 4 Park St.
 Vernon, CT  06066
 Orders:     (800) 635-3355 (doesn't work in Canada)
 Phone:      (203) 871-6170
 Fax:        (203) 872-2204
 
 
Q107.  How do I solve the most common X10 problems? 
 
A107.  There is a common problem that you may encounter in setting up your
home with X10 modules.  This happens mostly in larger homes, say larger
than 2000 square feet (185 square metres).  The symptoms are that some
receiver modules may not work when commanded from some transmitters, or
they may only work sporadically.
 
This could be caused by too much isolation between the two sides of the 
power line (assuming North American wiring standards):  a transmitter on 
one side will not transmit reliably to a receiver on the other side.  Try 
your X10 system with and without your electric stove turned on; turning the 
stove on may bridge both sides of the power line, but is not the 
recommended permanent solution.  A better way would be to install a signal 
bridge which is available as a commercial product.  See section 2 below for 
details.  An alternative solution is to install a 0.1 microfarad capcitor 
(240 VAC or 600 VDC) across the 220 volt line "hot-to-hot".  A qualified 
electrician can do this across any 220 volt double pole breaker.  This will 
bridge the signal from one side to the other. 
 
This could also be because the distance from the transmitter to the 
receiver is too great and the signals are two weak to activate the 
receiver.  If moving the transmitter does not work or is not feasible, the 
solution may be to install a signal amplifier.  This is available as a 
commercial product.  See Section 2 below for details. 
 
Noise blocks or noise filters may solve other more obscure problems (false 
ON/OFF signals, for example), often caused by TVs or wireless intercomms.  
Locate interference sources by unplugging them one at a time. See details 
on commercially available nosie blocks and filters in Section 2 below if 
moving the transmitter away from interference sources does not work or is 
not feasible. 
 
If a WALL OUTLET 220V, 15A (X10:HD243) or WALL OUTLET 220V, 20A (X10:HD245) 
doesn't seem to work in an apartment or office building, that may be 
because the building has a three phase power system and the X10 outlets are 
designed to work on a single (split) phase system such as found in a home.  
There is no solution to this.
 
Some power strips that have filters in them to protect electronic equipment 
effectively filter out X10 signals.  Cheaper power strips that protect 
against voltage spikes only do not affect X10 signals.  Try moving X10 
transmitters or receivers from power strips to a standard outlet if they 
don't seem to be working. 
 
Another common problem with X10 devices is not reading the documentation 
that comes with them.  People still insist on trying to use dimmer switches 
or lamp modules on electric fans or fluorescent lights (symptom can be 
fire), or trying to control low wattage lamps (symptom may be unreliable 
operation for less than 50W for some modules).  Solution:  RTFM.  See also 
Q113.
 
 
Q108.  Will X10 work on 220/240V? 
 
A108.  There are X10 receiver modules designed to control 240 volt loads,
but only where these are part of a standard North American wiring system,
e.g. for the electric stove or electric drier.  See section 2 below. 
 
Knowledge of how X10 works on anything else than 60 Hz 110V is a bit hazy 
in North America.  The following companies are reputed to sell X10 devices 
for European use: 
 
 Busch-Jaeger Elektro GmbH
 P.O. box 1280
 D-5880 Luedenscheid
 Germany
 Phone: +49 2351 956-0
 Fax  : +49 2351 956-694
 
 Celtel (Celtec?) Ltd
 P.O. Box 135
 Basingstoke
 RG25 2HZ
 U.K.
 Phone:  0256 474900
 Fax:    0256 818064
 
 WDC Home Automation
 Somewhere in the U.K.
 0635 866707??
 0635 871141 ??
 
The following companies are reputed to sell X10 devices in Australia:
 
 CEBus Australia
 PO BOX 178
 Greensborough VIC 3088
 Australia
 Phone:   03 467 7194
 Fax:     03 467 8422
 
 Midac Technologies
 Upper Monkerai
 New South Wales 2415
 Australia
 Phone:   049 94 7069 
 Fax:     049 94 7039
 
 The Smart Company
 5 Mouat Street
 PO Box 127
 Fremantle, Western Australia  6160
 Australia
 Phone:  09 430 8887
 Fax:    09 430 8886
 
 
Q109.  How do I send and receive X10 signals with my computer? 
 
A109.  The easiest way of giving your computer some control over X10 
modules is via the CP290 Home Control Interface.  This is a small box that 
connects to a standard RS-232 serial port and has its own internal battery 
backed up seven day clock. It is sold with software to work with a PC, Mac, 
Apple ][, or Commodore 64/128, and comes with the appropriate serial cable 
(the CP290 box itself is the same for all).  Once you set up to 128 events 
(on, off, dim) using your computer, you can turn off the computer and the 
box will transmit scheduled X10 commands on a daily or weekly schedule. The 
CP290 also has an "immediate" mode to send X10 commands from the computer 
to X10 receivers.  Details on programming the CP290 are in Section 4. 
 
There are also other X10 modules to interface computers directly to the
power line to send and/or receive X10 commands.  These are the PL513 (send
only) and the TW523 (send and receive).  
 
The TW523 is a low level two-way interface to the power line.  It contains 
a PIC controller to decode incoming signals and store them for transmission 
to the host computer.  It's essentially a 120KHz modulator and demodulator, 
with just enough smarts to recognize a valid X-10 command code.  Due to the 
tight timing requirements and lack of drivers, applications are limited to 
systems developers and experienced hobbyists willing to code in assembly. 
 
The computer interfaces to the TW523 through an RJ-11 modular phone jack 
which has the following signals: signal (not AC) ground, receive output, 
zero-cross output and transmit input.  All signals are optocoupled, and the 
outputs are open-collector.  A logic high (greater than 4V) on the transmit 
input modulates the AC line with the 120KHz carrier wave.  The zero-cross 
output is a square wave coincident with the 60Hz AC line.  The receive 
output is an envelope of the X-10 signal, and is low when the 120KHz signal 
for `bit=1' is present during a valid code. 
 
The signal applied to the transmit input must encompass all of the bits for 
all 3 phases of the line (i.e. 3 bits per half AC cycle).  The computer 
must follow the full transmission protocol detailed in Section 3 of the 
FAQ, but only needs to send the proper envelope for the transmission as the 
TW523 converts the digital envelope into bursts of 120KHz carrier. 
 
The receive output is buffered through the PIC in the TW523.  The first 
valid X-10 code cycle on the AC line alerts the PIC (and is lost to the 
controlling computer).  During the second code cycle (all codes in X-10 
protocol are sent twice), the TW523 outputs a low when there is 120KHz 
carrier on the AC line, and only during the bit time for the local AC 
phase.  The signals for the other two AC phases are not echoed to the 
controlling computer.  The output is open-collector at all other times.  
The logic is reversed; when there's a valid `bit=1' (120KHz carrier), the 
output is low, and high otherwise. Since the TW523 responds to all signals 
on the AC line, it also echoes any sent by the controlling computer, 
allowing for collision detection similar to that used by the Ethernet 
protocol (CSMA/CD). 
 
[Question: does it output only the second transmission when echoing local 
transmissions?] 
 
These units may be supplied with parallel or serial port adaptors.  These 
use handshaking bits in non-standard ways, so normal serial and parallel 
portdrivers are not of any use.
 
See also Q115 for information on PLIX, which simplifies interface 
requirements considerably.
 
 
Q110.  Where do I get X10 software for my computer? 
 
A110.  The CP290 Home Control Interface comes with software for either IBM 
PC, Mac, Apple ][, or Commodore 64/128.  This is rudimentary, but 
functional.  
 
Baran-Harper Group Inc in Ontario runs a bulletin board that has a good
selection of software for the CP290 and TW523.  Their BBS numbers are (905)
471-9574 and (905) 471-6776. Also try BBS listed for other companies in 
A106 above.
 
Other sources:
 
 FTP:  ftp.digibd.com:/pub/rick/x10.shar
       oak.oakland.edu:/pub/msdos/x_10/   (CP290 software)
       mrcnext.cso.uiuc.edu:/asre/
       cs.sunysb.edu:/pub/386BSD/xten.tgz
       id.wing.net:/pub/pgf/x10/x10.tar.gz (UNIX CP290 software)
 
 
 WWW:  http://www.digibd.com/people/rick
       http://web.cs.ualberta.ca/~wade/HyperHome/
 
 
Q111.  Where do I look for more information on X10?
 
A111.  Try the following:
 
Magazines:
 
 Electronic House (is this the editorial address???)
 EH Publishing
 P.O. Box 339
 Stillwater, OK 74076-9923
 Phone:   (405) 624-8015  (800) 375-8015 ???
 FAX:     (405) 743-3374
 
 Electronic House (is this the address for subscriptions only???)
 P.O. Box 7972
 Riverton NJ 08077-8672
 Phone:   (508) 358-3400
 FAX:     (508) 358-5195
 
 Practical Home Automation magazine
 3043 South Laredo Circle
 Aurora, CO USA 80013-1805
 Phone:   (303) 699-5541
 FAX:     (303) 766-2696
 BBS:     (303) 680-3864 (8N1, 2400-9600 V.32)
 
Books:
 
 "How to automate your home", 2nd Edition byDavid Gladdis, published 1991
   by David Gladdis, ISBN 0-9632170-0-3, available from Baran-Harper and 
   possibly other X-10 mail-order companies
 
WWW:
 
 http://web.cs.ualberta.ca/~wade/HyperHome/
 
X10 Expertise for hire:
 
 Canadian Control and Automation Ltd
 7 Wincanton Rd.
 Markham, Ontario CANADA
 L3S 3H3
 Phone:   (905) 470-9121
 FAX:     (905) 568-3658
 Custom engineered home automation systems, security,fully distributed 
 A/V, home theater, energy management solutions, also SmartHouse(tm) 
 certified 
 
 T. Brusehaver
 Empowered Home
 10608 Alabama Circle
 Bloomington, MN 55438
 Phone:   (612) 887-1342
 X10 hardware and software, development in other areas of home automation,
 energy saving devices, smart occupancy sensors, infrared control
 
 Rick Sloan
 IntelliHome Controls
 15 - 8 Deerfield Drive
 Nepean, ON, CANADA  K2G 3R6
 Phone:    (613) 723-1427
 FAX/BBS:  (613) 723-2370
 E-mail:   al904@freenet.carleton.ca
 X10 hardware and software, development in other areas of home automation, 
 energy saving devices,smart occupancy sensors, products for disabled 
 persons, infrared control
 
 
Q112.  How should I design the wiring of my new home to accommodate X10? 
 
A112.  Most X10 receivers and transmitters can be plugged or wired into 
conventional wiring in any home without any special preparation or design.  
However, if you have the luxury of designing the wiring in your home before 
it is built, there are a few things you may wish to consider. 
 
A conventional light switch is wired into the circuit between the power 
panel and the light it controls.  Wiring conventional three-way (or more) 
switches for use at the top and bottom of the stairs for example, takes 
special wiring and foresight.  There are X10 wall switches to replace 
conventional switches in conventional wiring, both for simple on/off and 
three-way control.  See Q114. 
 
You may wish, however, to put dedicated control modules (see LEV:6375, 
LEV:6376 in Section 2) into built-in light fixtures and wire these fixtures 
directly to the power supply with no conventional switch.  You could then 
turn the lights on or off from X10 transmitter anywhere in the house.  Of 
course, you may wish to put in a conventional switch somewhere so you could 
manually enable/disable the light fixture independent of X10 on/off 
control. 
 
You would probably want to install wall mounted controllers (see LEV:6319 
series) instead of light switches at convenient places like entrances or 
stairways.  The wiring for these wall mounted controllers is just like the 
wiring for a power outlet:  two wires direct to the power supply.  This is 
NOT the same as wiring for a conventional light switch.  By changing the 
settings on the control modules and the wall mounted controllers you can 
link any switch to any light.  Any light can be controlled in a three-way 
(or four-way, or more) manner just by adding more wall mounted controllers 
wherever convenient. 
 
A motion/sunup/sundown detector (e.g. X10:PR511) is a good addition to any 
house.  You will probably want to wire this in a conventional circuit 
controlled by a conventional light switch.  This way you can disable it 
(stop it from sending X10 signals) if you have to. 
 
Other things you could consider are dedicated outlets in convenient 
locations for Christmas lights (few house builders ever think of this).  
This will avoid running extension cords out the garage or off the outdoor 
light fixtures.  With these controlled by X10, you could then have your 
X10:CP290 turn them on or off as required.  In Canada and other 
occasionally frigid climates you might consider controlling the outlet for 
your block heater by X10, but watch that the power drawn by the heater 
doesn't exceed the capacity of the X10 receiver.
 
You may wish to document clearly how you have wired the house in case you 
ever sell it.  It may not be obvious to the next occupant, or to any 
electrician he hires to "fix" things. 
 
Don't forget telephone wiring.  For the ultimate house, you'll want at 
least one unlisted telephone line for remote control of your house from a 
DTMF phone anywhere in the world.  This will take a telephone interface 
such as X10:TR551 or LEV:6325.  While this might see like an expensive 
luxury, think of what you could do by calling to turn off your fax machine, 
and turn on your computer so that you could call it (on a separate line) to 
transfer data.  When done, you turn it off (or better, have it turn itself 
off by sending the proper command to its X10 interface) and turn on the fax 
machine again. 
 
 
Q113.  How do I control fluorescent and halogen lights with X10? 
 
A113.  Lamp modules and standard X10 wall switch (e.g. X10:WS467) generally 
do not work well anything other than incandescent lights.  There are 
several reasons why this is so. 
 
Both lamp modules and wall switches cut out part of the power sine wave to 
dim the lights that are connected to them; the waveform available at the 
load is no longer a simple sine wave, but a sharply-truncated version of a 
sine wave.  Even at full brightness, there is some power cut [Can anyone 
confirm this?].  This is not too critical for a simple incandescent light.  
For a compact fluorescent lamp that has some electronic circuitry in the 
base to drive it, however, this is not a good idea since the circuitry is 
designed around the expectation of a stable waveform at standard voltage.  
Trying to dim a compact fluorescent by modifying the input power supply is 
like trying to turn down the volume on your radio by putting it on a dimmer 
circuit.  It may sort of work with unpredictable results, but cause damage 
to the load being dimmed. 
 
Standard lamp modules and appliance modules have full access to house 
current since they are plugged directly into a power outlet.  Standard X10 
wall switch modules, however, rely on getting their power from current 
leaking through the filament of the incandescent bulb(s) in the circuit 
they control even when the bulb is off.  If the load they control is not a 
standard incandescent bulb, there may be no (or not enough) current to the 
switch and it may not operate as designed.  This may be especially true for 
fluorescent bulbs, or special power saving bulbs that have diodes built 
into the base. 
 
As noted above, the voltage output from lamp modules and standard X10 wall 
switches is not a pure sine wave.  Tranformers are generally designed for a 
certain frequency or range of frequencies (e.g. 50-60 Hz).  They may not be 
able to handle the higher frequency harmonics present in the sharply 
truncated sine wave output from a lamp module or wall switch.  As a result, 
they may heat up and/or burn out.  This is true of halogen or fluorescent 
lamps that have an integrated transformer. It's true of any device with a 
transformer (e.g. some radios and computers) or with a motor (e.g. garage 
door opener or electric fan). 
 
A standard APPLIANCE MODULE (X10:AM486) may work for loads that are other 
than incandescent lights.  Note that when used with a compact fluorescent 
bulb, the local control mode in the appliance module often senses a small 
current flow and keeps turning on.  See Section 5 on defeating local 
control.  Using an appliance module on a halogen light should work in most 
applications, but will not permit remote dimming.  If the light has a 
built-in dimming control, this can still be used. 
 
There are special modules designed for fluorescent lights and other loads.  
Some of these may be in wall switch form but require a neutral power 
connection (not all existing wiring designed for a manual on/off switch 
have the neutral connection).  Others (e.g. LEV:6375) wire directly into 
the light fixture and rely on control from some X10 transmitter (e.g. 
LEV:6319-4 series). Halogen flood lights work fine in MOTION DETECTOR 
(X10:PR511, LEV:6417).
 
There has been some success reported in using the standard X10 
inacandescent wall switch for controlling halogen lights that do not have a 
transformer in the light fixture.  There are many types of halogen bulbs; 
mileage may vary.  Use at own risk. 
 
Despite the information above and warnings on X10 lamp modules and wall 
switches that they be used only for incandescent loads, people persist in 
trying to use them for other loads.  There are unconfirmed reports that 
doing so will cause the module/switch to catch fire (luckily this rarely 
happens more than once for a single installation).  One should be very sure 
that one understands the full implication of going against the 
manufacturers' recommendations when directly connecting a device to the 
main power supply which will be left unattended in a valuable home. 
 
 
Q114.  Can I use X10 in a three-way light switching application? 
 
A114.  The way lights are normally wired is with a single on/off SPST 
switch.  When the contacts are closed, the light is on; when open, the light

is off:
               *on--------------
              /                |
        -----*                 |
               *(off)        LIGHT
                               |
        ------------------------
 
In a three-way switching application, a pair of SPDT switches (often at the 
top and bottom of stairs) are wired so that the light can be turned on or 
off from either switch.  (This is sometimes called two-way switching.)  
Note that for three-way switching, neither the switches nor the wiring are 
the same as for normal on/off switching: 
 
 
               *----------------*
              /                  
        -----*                    *---------
                                 /          |
               *----------------*         LIGHT
                                            |
        -------------------------------------
 
In a situation where a light is already wired for three-way switching, X10 
can easily be used.  Install the WALL SWITCH 3-WAY KIT (X10:WS4777) -- see 
section 2 below.  This contains one WALL SWITCH 3-WAY (master) and one WALL 
SWITCH 3-WAY REMOTE.  Put the master in place of one switch and the remote 
in place of the other, wiring carefully as shown in the instructions that 
accompany the kit. Note that this is for incandescent lights only and not 
for appliances, motors or fluorescent lights. 
 
In fact, this will work where lights are already wired for four- or more-
way switching as well.  All you need is one additional WALL SWITCH 3-WAY 
REMOTE (available separately) to replace each additional SPDT conventional 
switch.
 
If you are wiring a circuit with the intent of using X10 in a three-way (or 
more) light switching application, don't wire it as shown above.  A much 
simpler and more flexible method is described in Q112.
 
 
Q115.  What is PLIX?
 
PLIX stands for Power Line Interface to X-10. It is an 18 pin DIP ASIC 
which performs all the timing and decoding necessary to interface a PL-513 
transmitter or a TW-523 transmitter/receiver to a microprocessor's TTL I/O 
port. In a nutshell, it does all the bit twiddling necessary to send and 
receive X-10 commands using a TW-523, simplifying the interface for home 
automation software.  This allows even interpreted BASIC to send and 
receive commands to X-10 devices. 
 
The PLIX chip can send and receive one command at a time. It can receive 
and buffer one X-10 command "in the background" (i.e. without any attention 
from the host processor) but if a second command comes in before the first 
is read the earlier data is overwritten. 
 
The PLIX Evaluation Board kit (PLIX-EKit) is a PLIX chip, printed circuit 
board, and all required components.  You must assemble it.  By hanging a 
PLIX-EKit off the parallel printer port on your IBM PC and running the 
appropriate software, you can send and receive X-10 commands from your IBM 
PC.  The PLIX chip also includes an AC Power Failure detect line, which on 
the PLIX-EKit is wired to generate an interrupt request to the host PC in 
the event of a power failure.  As a minimum setup you would probably need a 
TW-523 interface and a "straight through" modular telephone cord, plus some 
kind of power supply (either a 9V battery or a simple power pack) and a 
case if you need it. 
 
The PLIX chip comes with some simple software in BASIC, and there is sample 
C code available via anonymous ftp from mrcnext.cso.uiuc.edu:/asre/plix.c 
Knowledge of BASIC, Pascal, or C would be more than sufficient to do your 
own programming. 
 
The PLIX chip and data sheet is $20 + shipping, and the EKit is $39 + 
shipping, both available from the MicroMint.  
 
 
Q116.  Can I use X10 components outside?
 
A116.  From time to time you may wish to control loads outside your home 
with X10.  Generally this should be a WALL OUTLET (X10:SR227, LEV:6227) or 
an APPLIANCE MODULE (X10:AM466).  There are two considerations you must 
bear in mind in installing these.
 
First, the X10 device must be protected from moisture.  An appliance module 
should not put put outside; you might want to put it in your garage or 
garden shed (assuming you have power in these locations) and run an 
extension cord to the load out under the door.  A more flexible approach 
would be to put an X10 wall outlet in an existing outside electrical box.  
This must be a weather proof box with tight cover.  If you intend to leave 
something plugged into it for long periods of time, you will have to find 
or make some kind of cover that protects the X10 wall outlet from moisture. 
 
Second, the X10 device should be on a circuit protected a ground fault 
circuit interrupter (GFCI, sometimes known as GFI).  These are special 
outlets that shut down very quickly when they detect some leakage current.  
These can put in serial with an appliance module (appliance module plugged 
into GFCI outlet), or in parallel (X10 wall outlet wired on load side of 
GFCI outlet) as shown below (North American wiring assumed): 
 
                  GFCI
                 outlet
  house current   _____         _____
  ________________|* *|---------|* *|  X10 appliance module (plugged into
  ________________| * |---------| * |   GFCI outlet, protected from
  ________________|   |---------|   |   elements)
            (line)|* *|         -----
                  | * |          ||+-------------
                  -----          |+--------------  load (plugged into
                                 +---------------   appliance module)
 
 
  house current   _____           _____  
  ________________|* *|___________|* *|
  ________________| * |___________| * |
  ________________|   |___________|   |----------  load (plugged into
            (line)|* *|(load)     |* *|----------   X10 wall outlet)
                  | * |           | * |----------
                  -----           -----  
                  GFCI           X10 wall
                 outlet           outlet (in weather proof box)
 
One final warning is about installing the X10 wall switch in an area where 
it will get cold.  Apparently the triac in it doesn't work at low 
temperatures.  For this reason, you should avoid even putting it in an 
outside wall.
 
 
Q117.  What are the various combinations of X10 wireless receivers and 
transmitters that work together? 
 
A117.  WIRELESS TRANSMITTER (X10:RT504, LEV:6313, RS:61-2560) will work 
with WIRELESS RECEIVER (X10:RR501, LEV:6314) or WIRELESS RECEIVER 
(X10:TM751).  To control 16 units, use two X10:RR501 (one set to 1-8, the 
other set to 9-16) or one X10:TM751. 
 
The surface mount two, three and four button WIRELESS TRANSMITTERS 
(X10:684, X10:724, X10:694 respectively) will work for all codes with 
WIRELESS RECEIVER (X10:TM751).  When used with WIRELESS RECEIVER 
(X10:RR501, LEV:6314), respectively they will only work for units 1-2, 1-3, 
or 1-4 if the receiver is set for 1-8; or 9-10, 9-11, or 9-12 if the 
receiver is set for 9-16.
 
The WIRELESS TRANSMITTER (X10:KC674) works for all codes with WIRELESS 
RECEIVER (X10:TM751).  With the WIRELESS RECEIVER (X10:RR501, LEV:6314), it 
will only work for units 1-2 with the reciever set on 1-8.
 
All the transmitters work with X10 security systems to some degree.  Check 
before investing.  You should not use the WIRELESS RECEIVER (X10:TM751 or 
X10:RR501, LEV:6314) if you have an X10 security system (their timing is 
slightly different and the signals they put on the power line will 
interfere with each other).  You should not have two wireless receivers of 
any type in close proximity (e.g. in same AC power bar) to each other 
(their local oscillators may interfere with each other). 
 
The bottom line is that the WIRELESS RECEIVER (X10:TM751) is much more 
flexible than the WIRELESS RECEIVER (X10:RR501, LEV:6314) strictly for 
control purposes.  If you already have an X10 security system, you should 
not need a separate wireless receiver. 
 
 
Q118.  How do I make the motion detector floodlight unit work properly?
 
A118.  MOTION DETECTOR (X10:PR511, LEV:6417) is a useful device that 
functions as both X10 receiver and transmitter.  It contains a sensor head 
to detect motion, an X10 receiver to turn on the attached floodlights, and 
an X10 transmitter to turn on up to four X10 units when motion is detected 
or four other X10 units at dusk and off again at dawn.  It also has a 
shutoff control with a variable timer to turn the lights (and remote units) 
off after motion has stopped.  It has a photocell control with variable 
sensitivity to determine when dusk and dawn occur. 
 
The most common problems with the motion detector can be solved by reading 
the short owner's manual that comes with it.  This may seem obvious, but 
the answers to the most frequently asked questions are in fact in the 
manual. 
 
If the detector does in fact detect motion during daylight hour and you 
want it to do so only at night, you need to adjust the DUSK control.  Note 
that each time you change this, the new value will not become effective 
for ten minutes, or one minute if you turn the power off and then on again. 
 
The floodlights on the detector be triggered on either by motion (turns off 
after a set time), or by darkness (turns off in the morning).  This mode is 
set on the THIS UNIT switch, either SENSOR (for motion) or DUSK (for 
darkness). Halogen floodlights work fine with this device.
 
Independent of the setting of the THIS UNIT switch, the detector can turn 
on and off up to four remote X10 units when it detects motion.  These units 
are the four units that follow in numerical sequence from the unit number 
of the detector.  Thus if the detector is UNIT 1, when motion is detected 
(sensitivity controlled by RANGE control), the detector will send X10 
signals to turn any or all of (individually selectable) UNITs 2, 3, 4, and 
5 ON for the same house code, and turn them OFF again after the selected 
time (controlled by TIME DELAY control) has elapsed.  As a second example 
of the unit codes, if the detector is UNIT 14, then any or all of UNITs 15, 
16, 1 and 2 for the same house code can be triggered for motion detection.  
To reiterate, the detector can detect motion and trigger up to four 
external devices even if the floodlights themselves are set to come on at 
dusk and go off at dawn. 
 
Independent of the setting of the THIS UNIT switch, and independent of any 
signals sent to remote units upon detection of motion, the detector can 
trigger up to four remote units on at dusk and off again at dawn.  These 
remote units are the four units that are +5, +6, +7 and +8 from the unit 
number of the detector.  Thus if the detector is UNIT 1, at dusk it will 
send X10 signals to turn any or all of (individually selectable) UNITs 6, 
7, 8 and 9 ON for the same house code at dusk and OFF again at dawn, 
according to the sensitivity set on the DUSK control.  As a second example 
of the unit codes, if the detector is UNIT 14, then an or all of UNITS 3, 
4, 5, and 6 for the same house code can be triggered to be on only during 
hours of darkness.  To reiterate, the detector can turn on up to four 
remote units during darkness even if the floodlights themselves are set to 
come on only when the detector detects motion.
 
The external units triggered by motion cannot be the same as those 
triggered by dusk/dawn.  Also if the DUSK control is adjusted to the 
minimum to detect motion even during the day, the detector will not be 
useable for switching lights on and off at sundown and sunup.  In this 
case, the attached floodlights will come on during the day, either 
continuously if THIS UNIT is set to DUSK, or whenever motion is detected if 
set to SENSOR. 
 
One typical application would be to have the detector overlooking a back 
door or patio.  At dusk, the detector would turn on the front exterior 
lights and some interior ones to make the empty house look lived-in.  When 
the detector detects motion in the back yard, it would turn on the attached 
floodlights, other interior lights and a recording of vicious dog.  These 
would go off after the set time.  Late in the evening, some sort of X10 
timer would turn off the lights that came on at dusk, to simulate the 
occupants going to bed.
 
<FAQ SECTION 2>
 
SECTION 2:  INFORMATION ON X10 COMPONENTS 
========================================== 
 
Manufacturers' numbers shown below are coded as follows: 
 
 X10:  X-10 Powerhouse 
 LEV:  Leviton Decora Electronic Controls 
 RS:   Radio Shack Plug 'N Power
 
 
MINI-CONTROLLER (X10:MC460).  Controls either units 1-4 or 5-8 (selectable)
for any single house code.  Functions: on, off, dim, all lights on, all
off.  Connects to standard wall outlet.
 
MAXI-CONTROLLER (X10:SC503, LEV:6320). Controls units 1-16 for any single 
house code.   Functions:  on, off, dim, all lights on, all off.  Connects 
to standard wall outlet.
 
SUNDOWNER (X10:SD533).  Same as MINI-CONTROLLER.  Also will turn four units
on at sundown and off at sunup as determined by internal photocell.
Connects to standard wall outlet.
 
MINI-TIMER (X10:MT522, RS:61-2670).   Battery backed up clock, controls 
units 1-8 for any house code.  Functions (daily cycle):  on or off at exact 
time or approximate time.  Manual control: off on, all lights on 
 
TELEPHONE INTERFACE (X10:TR551, RS:61-2692).  Answers phone, controls 10 
modules from commands on remote DTMF phone 
 
TELEPHONE TRANSPONDER (LEV:6325).  Answers phone, controls all 256 possible
units for commands on remote DTMF phone, three digit access code, confirms
all commands with synthesized voice
 
HOME CONTROL INTERFACE (X10:CP290, RS:61-2617).  Battery backed up clock, 
seven day cycle, 128 events set by computer connected to RS-232 interface, 
any house code, any unit codes.  Manual control:  units 1-8 for the base 
house code set on the unit, on or off.  Comes with software for any one of 
(not all) PC, Mac, Apple ][ or Commodore 64/128 and appropriate serial 
cable.  Computer can be turned off or disconnected once the interface has 
been programmed and it continues on by itself. 
 
COMPUTER INTERFACE (X10:PL513).  Send only computer interface module.
 
COMPUTER INTERFACE (X10:TW523).  Semi-intelligent computer interface to the
power line, recommended for developers only.  It plugs into an outlet and
allows a computer or microcontroller to talk and listen directly to the X10
command codes on the AC line.  It's roughly the size of a lamp module.  See 
details in Q109.
 
THERMOSTAT CONTROLLER (X10:TH2807). Attaches to appliance module.  Small
heater underneath any thermostat fools it into thinking house is warm and
furnace need not be turned on.  Good for use with automatic timer (e.g.
MINI-TIMER or HOME CONTROL INTERFACE). 
 
WIRELESS TRANSMITTER (X10:RT504, LEV:6313, RS:61-2560).  Controls units 1-8 
or 9-16 for any house code by sending radio signals to a WIRELESS RECEIVER 
(X10:RR501, LEV:6314). 
 
WIRELESS TRANSMITTER (X10:KC674, RS:61-2565).  Turns any two units on or 
off by sending radio signals to WIRELESS RECEIVER (X10:TM571 or RR501), 
keychain size 
 
WIRELESS TRANSMITTER (X10:RW684, RS:61-2562).  Turns any two units on or 
off by sending radio signals to WIRELESS RECEIVER (X10:TM571 or RR501), 
surface mount 
 
WIRELESS TRANSMITTER (X10:RW694, RS:61-2664).  Turns any four units on or 
off by sending radio signals to WIRELESS RECEIVER (X10:TM571 or RR501), 
surface mount 
 
WIRELESS TRANSMITTER (X10:RW724, RS:61-2563).  Turns any three units on, 
off or dim by sending radio signals to WIRELESS RECEIVER (X10:TM571 or 
RR501), surface mount 
 
WALL MOUNTED CONTROLLER (LEV:6319-4).  Turns any four consecutive units on
or off.  Push button switches.  Wired into rectangular wall box. 
 
WALL MOUNTED CONTROLLER (LEV:6319-4D).  Turns any three consecutive units
on, off or dim.  Push button switches.  Wired into rectangular wall box.
 
WALL MOUNTED CONTROLLER (LEV:6319-4A).  Turns any three consecutive units
on or off.  Also provides ALL ON and ALL OFF commands.  Push button
switches.  Wired into rectangular wall box. 
 
WALL MOUNTED CONTROLLER (LEV:6319-2).  Turns any two consecutive units on
or off.  Push button switches.  Wired into rectangular wall box.
 
WALL MOUNTED CONTROLLER (LEV:6319-2D).  Turns any unit on, off or dim. Push
button switches.  Wired into rectangular wall box.
 
WALL MOUNTED CONTROLLER (LEV:6319-2D).  Turns any unit on or off.  Push
button switches.  Wired into rectangular wall box.
 
WALL MOUNTED CONTROLLER (LEV:6319-1A).  Provides ALL ON and ALL OFF
commands.  Push button switches.  Wired into rectangular wall box. 
 
DRY CONTACT TRANSMITTER (LEV:6315).  Transmits X10 ON and OFF signals to
four consecutive units in response to make or break connections of dry
contact sensors (e.g. photocells, external alarm systems).  Wired into
rectangular wall box.
 
MOMENTARY DRY CONTACT TRANSMITTER (LEV:6316).  Similar to DRY CONTRACT
TRANSMITTER (LEV:6315) but triggers on momentary changes in the external
dry contact sensors.
 
WIRELESS RECEIVER (X10:RR501, LEV:6314, RS:61-2608).  Receives X10 commands 
by radio signals from WIRELESS TRANSMITTER (X10:RT504, LEV:6313) and 
retransmits them into house wiring for any eight units.  Also has 
integrated appliance module. 
 
WIRELESS RECEIVER (X10:TM751).  Receives X10 commands by radio signals
from WIRELESS TRANSMITTER and retransmits them into house wiring for any
two units.  Also has integrated appliance module.
 
APPLIANCE MODULE (X10:AM486).  Responds to any house code, any single unit.
Turns load (15A, motors up to 1/3 HP, 500W for lights) either on or off.
Two conductor 
 
APPLIANCE MODULE (X10:AM466).  Same as APPLIANCE MODULE (X10:AM486), but
three conductor
 
FIXTURE RELAY MODULE (LEV:6375).  This module does not plug into an outlet, 
but must be wired into the circuit.  It switches a relay that handles 5A 
for incandescent or fluorescent lights.  Responds to ON, OFF, ALL LIGHTS 
ON, and ALL OFF commands.                            
 
DIMMING FIXTURE MODULE (LEV:6376).  Similar to FIXTURE RELAY MODULE 
(LEV:6375) but has no relay and will dim up to 300W incandescent lights.  
Responds to DIM and BRIGHTEN commands as well as ON, OFF, ALL LIGHTS ON, 
and ALL OFF commands. 
 
LAMP MODULE(X10:LM465).  Responds to any house code, any single unit.
Turns incandescent light (300W max) on, off, or dim.  Reportedly melts if
connected to anything else.
 
MOTION DETECTOR (X10:PR511, LEV:6417, RS:61-2604).  At sundown, sends ON 
command for any up to four consecutive units and sends OFF again at sunup.  
Also only when dark, sends ON command to up to four other consecutive units 
when motion detected.  Two floodlight sockets turned on/off for either 
sundown/sunup or when motion detected (selectable). Adjustable sensitivity 
for sunup/sundown and on/off time delay for motion.  For outside use.  Must 
be wired into round electrical box. 
 
POWER HORN (X10:PH508, RS:61-2613).  This is a very loud (100dB) piezo 
electric device used as the audible indicator to scare away or deafen 
intruders.  It sounds in response to X10 signals, usually generated by 
other components in a complete X10 alarm system. 
 
WALL SWITCH (X10:WS467).  Replaces standard wall switch, wired into
rectangular wall box.  Manual toggle of on or off.  May be locked in off
position.
 
SCREW IN LAMP MODULE (X10:SL575).  Same function as lamp module (X10:465) 
but screws in between existing light fixture and bulb.  Controls up to 150 
watts. 
 
WALL SWITCH 3-WAY (X10:WS477).  Same as standard WALL SWITCH, but for use
with three way switch (on/off at two or more locations). 
 
WALL SWITCH 3-WAY REMOTE (part no?).  Used with WALL SWITCH 3-WAY.  For
on/off at two or more locations, one must be WALL SWITCH 3-WAY, others must
be WALL SWITCH 3-WAY REMOTE.  One of these is included with WS4777, but 
they are also available separately.
 
WALL SWITCH 3-WAY KIT (X10:WS4777).  Kit of WALL SWITCH 3-WAY (X10:WS477) 
and WALL SWICH 3-WAY REMOTE. 
 
WALL OUTLET (X10:SR227, LEV:6227).  Similar to APPLIANCE MODULE 15 A, 800W) 
but replaces standard wall outlet, wired into rectangular wall box.  One 
outlet is X10 controlled; other is always on.
 
WALL OUTLET DUPLEX (LEV:6280).  Similar to WALL OUTLET, but each outlet is
considered separate X10 unit, controlled separately.
 
WALL OUTLET 220V, 15A (X10:HD243, RS:61-2668).  Controls 220V appliances 
(e.g. water heater) up to 15 A, monophase or split two phase, standard 
North American wiring. 
 
WALL OUTLET 220V, 20A (X10:HD245, RS:61-2669).  Same as WALL OUTLET 220V 
15A but for up to 20 A. 
 
REMOTE CHIME (X10:SC546).  Chimes when turned on.  Selectable for any house
code, any unit code.  Could be used with MOTION DETECTOR to warn when
someone is approaching.
 
UNIVERSAL LOW VOLTAGE MODULE (X10:UM506, LEV:6337, RS:61-2688).  Selectable 
for any house code, any unit code.  Closes external circuit (selectable 
continuous or momentary) in response to X10 command.  Has integrated REMOTE 
CHIME function.  Plugs into standard wall outlet.  For controlling 
sprinklers, curtain closers whose control signals are not 120V but rely on 
simple switch closing. 
 
THERMOSTAT SET BACK (X10:TH2807).  Supplies a small amount of heat under 
conventional thermostat to fool into turning heating off.  Plugs into an 
appliance module (e.g. X10:AM486) or an X10 wall outlet (e.g. X10:SR227, 
LEV:6227)
 
SYSTEM AMPLIFIER (LEV:6201).  Boosts signals on one phase and retransmits
them on the other in North American 120/240V wiring system.  Installed on
its own 15A breaker at main electrical panel.  Often required for large
buildings over 5000 square feet (465 square metres).
 
SIGNAL BRIDGE (LEV:6299).  Couples signals from one phase to other in North
American 120/240V wiring system.  Installed on its own 15A breaker in
rectangular wall box.  Often required in medium sized buildings over 2000
square feet (185 square metres), or smaller where commands do not pass
reliably.
 
NOISE BLOCK (LEV:6282).  Installed between incoming power line and main
panel to keep extraneous electronic noise and signals from entering or
leaving X10 network.  Useful in apartments or attached homes sharing same
transformer with others.  100A per phase.
 
NOISE FILTER (LEV:6288).  Looks like appliance module.  Installed between
power outlet and power cord of particularly noisy appliance that is
interfering with X10 signals. 
 
<FAQ SECTION 3>
 
SECTION 3:  DETAILS ON X10 PROTOCOL 
==================================== 
 
Note:  This section applies to 60 Hz North American wiring.  Relevance of
this to European wiring is not known.
 
Each ONE bit in a legitimate X10 transmission is a 1 millisecond (mS) pulse 
code modulated burst of 120KHz on the AC line, and each ZERO is the absence 
of that burst.  The exact length of the burst may not be too critical in 
most applications.  The burst is sent three times for each bit, once at 
each AC zero-crossing (accounting for zero-crossing in 3-phase).  That 
means once each 2.778 mS.  The next bit is sent on the following zero-
crossing.  This is done to get the quietest time on the AC line for the 
receiver, whatever phase of the AC it's on.  The zero crossing gives the 
best signal-to-noise ratio for data transmission because everything should 
be shut down then (i.e. the voltage is low). 
 
              .  .  .                                                     .
           .           .                                               .
        .                 .                                         .
     .                       .                                   .
  ._____________________________._____________________________.___________
  ^         ^         ^         ^ .       ^         ^     .   ^         ^
  1         1         1         2    .    2         2  .      3        etc.
                                         .           .
                                            .  .  .
 
 
In addition, each bit is sent both true and complemented, and each code 
sequence is sent twice.  That's a lot of bit redundancy, and just barely 
enough to make it past the noise on the line, depending on actual 
conditions. 
 
A single normal command takes eleven cycles of the AC line to finish.  All 
legal commands must first start with the header 1110, a unique code as 
described below.  The header bits take two cycles at one bit per half 
cycle.  The next four cycles are the four-bit House Code, but it takes 
eight bits total because each bit is sent true then complemented.  This is 
similar to biphase encoding, as the bit value changes state half-way 
through the transmission, and improves transmission reliability.  The last 
five AC cycles are the Unit / Function Code, a five bit code that takes ten 
bits (again, true then complemented).  For any codes except the DIM, BRIGHT 
and the data following the EXTENDED DATA function, there's a mandatory 
three cycle pause before sending another command  DIM and BRIGHT don't 
necessarily need a pause, and the data after the EXTENDED DATA command 
absolutely MUST follow immediately until all bytes have been sent.  The 
EXTENDED DATA code is handy, as any number of eight-bit bytes may follow. 
The data bytes must follow the true/complement rule, so will take eight 
cycles per byte, with no pause between bytes until complete. The only legal 
sequence that doesn't conform to the true/complement rule are the start 
bits 1110 that lead the whole thing off, likely because the modules need 
some way to tell when it's OK to start listening again. 
 
A full transmission containing everything looks like this (see the end of
this section for the actual command codes):
 
   1 1 1 0  H8 /H8 H4 /H4 H2 /H2 H1 /H1  D8 /D8 D4 /D4 D2 /D2 D1 /D1 F /F
   (start)         (House code)                 (Unit/Function code)
 
So, to turn on Unit 12 of House code A, send the following:
 
   1 1 1 0   0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1   1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1  (House A, Unit 12)
 
then wait at least three full AC cycles and send it again, then wait three
and send:
 
   1 1 1 0   0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1   0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0  (House A, Function ON)
 
again wait three cycles and send it the last time.  Total transmission
would have been 264 discrete bits (don't forget the 3-phase) and would take
53 cycles of the AC line, or about .883 seconds.
 
It's perfectly allowable to stack the Unit or Function codes together, so
sending Unit 2  Unit 3  Unit 12  ON (separated by 3 cycles minimum) will
turn on all 3 units.  Stacking ON and OFF codes is annoying and flashes the
lights quickly (roughly 4 Hz).
 
 
X10 COMMAND CODES
 
         House Codes                         Unit/Function Codes
 
       H8  H4  H2  H1                        D8  D4  D2  D1   F
 
    A   0   1   1   0                  1      0   1   1   0   0
    B   1   1   1   0                  2      1   1   1   0   0
    C   0   0   1   0                  3      0   0   1   0   0
    D   1   0   1   0                  4      1   0   1   0   0
    E   0   0   0   1                  5      0   0   0   1   0
    F   1   0   0   1                  6      1   0   0   1   0
    G   0   1   0   1                  7      0   1   0   1   0
    H   1   1   0   1                  8      1   1   0   1   0
    I   0   1   1   1                  9      0   1   1   1   0
    J   1   1   1   1                 10      1   1   1   1   0
    K   0   0   1   1                 11      0   0   1   1   0
    L   1   0   1   1                 12      1   0   1   1   0
    M   0   0   0   0                 13      0   0   0   0   0
    N   1   0   0   0                 14      1   0   0   0   0
    O   0   1   0   0                 15      0   1   0   0   0
    P   1   1   0   0                 16      1   1   0   0   0
                           All Units Off      0   0   0   0   1
                            All Units On      0   0   0   1   1
                                      On      0   0   1   0   1
                                     Off      0   0   1   1   1
                                     Dim      0   1   0   0   1
                                  Bright      0   1   0   1   1
                          All Lights Off      0   1   1   0   1
                           Extended Code      0   1   1   1   1
                            Hail Request      1   0   0   0   1   Note 1
                        Hail Acknowledge      1   0   0   1   1
                             Pre-Set Dim      1   0   1   X   1   Note 2
                           Extended Data      1   1   0   0   1   Note 3
                            Status is On      1   1   0   1   1
                           Status is Off      1   1   1   0   1
                          Status request      1   1   1   1   1   Note 4
 
Note 1:  Hail Request is transmitted to see if there are any other X10
         compatible transmitters within listening range.
 
Note 2:  In a Pre-Set Dim function, the D1 bit represents the MSB of the
         level and the 4 House code bits represent the 4 least significant
         bits.  No known X10 device responds to the Pre-Set Dim function.
 
Note 3:  The Extended Data code is followed by eight-bit bytes which can
         be any data you might want to send (like temperature).  There
         must be no delay between the Extended Data code and the actual
         data bytes, and no delay between data bytes.
 
Note 4:  The X10 RF to AC Gateway model RR501 is a two-way module.  If the
         RR501 is addressed by transmitting its House Code and Unit Code and
         then the STATUS REQUEST is transmitted, the RR501 will respond by
         transmitting Status ON if it's turned on, or Status OFF if it's
off.
 
 
RECOMMENDED SPECS TO ENSURE RELIABLE COMMUNICATION TO ALL X10 DEVICES:
 
  Carrier Oscillation Frequency         120KHz +/- 5%  (s/b 2%, but 5% OK)
 
  Zero Crossing Detection               100uS +/- 100uS
 
  Width of Transmitted Carrier          1mS +/- 50uS
 
  Transmitter output power              60 mW average (5V pk-pk into 5 ohms)
 
  Isolation Voltage                     2500V RMS. 60Hz for 1 min.
 
 

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From: tgreen@freenet.edmonton.ab.ca ()
Newsgroups: comp.home.automation
Subject: X10 FAQ 2/2
Date: 8 Jan 1995 13:06:48 GMT
Organization: Edmonton Freenet, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
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Message-ID: <3eoo18$mnr@news.sas.ab.ca>
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<FAQ SECTION 4>
 
SECTION 4:  PROGRAMMING DETAILS FOR CP290 HOME CONTROL INTERFACE 
================================================================ 
 
Reference:  X10 CP290 Home Control Interface Programming Guide for
Advanced Programmers
 
The CP290 Home Control Interface communicates with the host computer via a
simplified RS-232 interface.  Serial communication takes place at 600 baud,
eight data bits, no parity, and one stop bit.  The reference recommends a
pause of one millisecond between transmitted bytes, although in many
applications this seems not to be required. This probably depends on the
efficiency of the serial communications software used to send data to the
interface.
 
The serial connector on the CP290 is a five pin DIN connector.  As seen
from the back of the interface, the pinouts are as follows: 
 
            5 - no connection  *       *  1 - no connection
          4 - data to computer  *     *  2 - data from computer
                                   *
                             3 - signal ground
 
 
There are eight possible commands that the computer can send to the CP290. 
Each command starts with 16 hex FF bytes (each 0xff, or eight ones) for 
synchronization purposes.  These are followed by the command code 0-7 and 
then a variable number of bytes as required by the syntax of each command. 
The interface requires a checksum of data bytes that follow the command 
code (see details for each command for exceptions) as the last byte in a 
command. 
 
The interface responds to each command with 6 hex FF bytes (each 0xFF, or
eight ones) for synchronization purposes.  This is followed by a status
byte, and depending on the command, other information.  The interface
generates a checksum for all bytes following the status byte and sends it
as the last byte in a reply to a command.
 
 
COMMAND 0 - SET INTERFACE BASE HOUSE CODE
 
The CP290 maintains a value called the base house code, which defaults to
house code A on power up.  This is equivalent to setting the house code on
other X10 controllers; the eight buttons on the CP290 control units 1-8 on
or off for the base house code.  Note that setting the base house code with
this command will clear all data in the interface.
 
Command syntax (computer to interface): 
 
        bytes 0-15:      1111 1111 - synchronization
                16:      0000 0000 - command 0 
                17:      HHHH 0000 - base house code to set 
 
               where HHHH =  0000 - house code M
                             0001             E
                             0010             C
                             0011             K
                             0100             O
                             0101             G
                             0110             A
                             0111             I
                             1000             N
                             1001             F
                             1010             D
                             1011             L
                             1100             P
                             1101             H
                             1110             B
                             1111             J
 
Return (interface to computer):
 
        bytes 0-5:      1111 1111- synchronization
                6:      0000 000X - interface status
 
                where X = 0 - interface has lost all memory 
                          1 - interface is OK 
 
 
COMMAND 1 - SEND DIRECT COMMAND 
 
It is possible to send X10 commands from the computer onto the power line
via the CP290. This is not particularly fast.
 
Command Syntax (computer to interface): 
 
        bytes 0-15:      1111 1111 - synchronization
                16:      0000 0001 - command 1 
                17:      LLLL FFFF - dimming level and function 
                18:      HHHH 0000 - house code for this command
                19:      UUUU UUUU - unit codes bitmapped 9-16
                20:      VVVV VVVV - unit codes bitmapped 1-8 
                21:      CCCC CCCC - checksum 
 
                where   LLLL = 1111 - dimmest (not quite full off) 
                                ... - intermediate brightness values
                               0000 - brightest (not quite full on) 
 
                        FFFF = 0000 - units off (*)
                               0001 - lights on, not appliances (*)
                               0010 - turn on
                               0011 - turn off
                               0100 - if light off, turn on full; in any
                                        case, dim to full off.  Responds as
                                        0011 (*)
                               0101 - if light off, turn on full; else
                                        brighten to full; then dim LLLL
                                        (LLLL+1?) steps.  Responds as 0100.
                               0110 - if light off, turn on full; else
                                        brighten by LLLL+1 steps. Responds
                                        as 0101. (*)
                               0111 - no obvious effect.  Responds as 0110.
                               1000 - no obvious effect.
                               1001 - no obvious effect.
                               1010 - no obvious effect.
                               1011 - no obvious effect.
                               1100 - no obvious effect.  Responds as 1011.
                               1101 - no obvious effect.  Responds as 1100.
                               1110 - no obvious effect.  Responds as 1101.
                               1111 - no obvious effect.  Responds as 1110.
 
                                where (*) indicates behavior undocumented
                                        in the reference
 
                        HHHH - as for Command 0
 
                        UUUU UUUU - units bitmapped as
                                9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
 
                        VVVV VVVV - units bitmapped as
                                1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 
 
                        CCCC CCCC - sum of bytes 17-20
 
Return (interface to computer): 
 
        bytes 0-5:      1111 1111 - synchronization
                6:      0000 000X - interface status
         (pause while X10 command is sent onto power line)
             7-12:      1111 1111 - synchronization
               13:      0000 000X - interface status
               14:      HHHH FFFF - house code and function
               15:      UUUU UUUU - unit codes bitmapped 9-16
               16:      VVVV VVVV - unit codes bitmapped 1-8
               17:      HHHH 0000 - base house code
               18:      CCCC CCCC - sum of bytes 14-17
 
               where all values are as explained above; response function
                        codes are same as command function codes except as
                        noted
 
 
COMMAND 2:  SET INTERFACE CLOCK
 
This command sets the internal clock in the CP290.
 
Command syntax (computer to interface): 
 
        bytes 0-15:      1111 1111 - synchronization
                16:      0000 0010 - command 2 
                17:      00mm mmmm - minutes 0-59 
                18:      000h hhhh - hours 0-23
                19:      0ddd dddd - bitmapped day of week Sun - Mon 
                20:      CCCC CCCC - sum of bytes 17-19 
 
                where ddd dddd is day of week bitmapped as
                                Sun Sat Fri Thu Wed Tue Mon
 
Return (interface to computer):
 
        bytes 0-5:      1111 1111 - synchronization
                6:      0000 000X - interface status
 
 
COMMAND 3a:   SEND TIMER EVENT TO INTERFACE 
 
This command sends a timer event to the interface.  The computer can then
be disconnected and the event will be sent over the power line as X10
commands at the appropriate time.  Events are stored eight bytes per event
in locations 0-1023 in the 2K RAM inside the interface.
 
Command syntax (computer to interface): 
 
        bytes 0-15:      1111 1111 - synchronization
                16:      0000 0011 - command 3 
                17:      AAAA AAAA - LSB of event address 
                18:      0000 00AA - MSB of event address
                19:      NNNN MMMM - mode 
                20:      0ddd dddd - bitmapped days Sun - Mon
                21:      000h hhhh - hour 0-23
                22:      00mm mmmm - minute 0-59
                23:      VVVV VVVV - bitmapped unit codes 1-8
                24:      UUUU UUUU - bitmapped unit codes 9-16 
                25:      HHHH 0000 - house code for this event
                26:      LLLL FFFF - level and function 
                27:      CCCC CCCC - sum of bytes 19-26
 
                where    0000 00AA AAAA AAAA (bytes 18 and 17) =
 
                         0000 0000 0000 0000 for event 0 
                         0000 0000 0000 0100 for event 1
                         0000 0000 0000 1000 for event 2
                         .... (increases by 8 for each event)
                         0011 1111 1111 1100 for event 127
 
 
                         MMMM = 0000 - clear
                                0001 - ?
                                0010 - tomorrow only then clear
                                0011 - ?
                                0100 - today only then clear
                                0101 - ?
                                0110 - ?
                                0111 - ?
                                1000 - at exact time
                                1001 - at approximate time
                                1010 - ?
                                1011 - ?
                                1100 - ?
                                1101 - ?
                                1110 - ?
                                1111 - ?
 
                         NNNN = MMMM                  - program event
                         NNNN = MMMM = 0000           - clear event
                         NNNN not = 0000; MMMM = 0000 - store event but
                                   put it on hold (will not take place)
 
        Actually, setting for NNNN and MMMM is a bit vague.  The reference
        indicates that NNNN = 0 and MMMM is function code as shown above.
        The software provided with the CP290 uses NNNN = MMMM except when
        "freezing" an event (deactiving it, but not erasing it).  Frozen
        events also have UUUU UUUU = VVVV VVVV = 0.  It's not clear how a
        frozen event knows what units it is to control.  Not clearing the
        unit mask confuses the standard CP290 software...
 
Return (interface to computer): 
 
        bytes 0-5:      1111 1111 - synchronization
                6:      0000 000X - interface status
 
 
COMMAND 3b:  SEND "GRAPHICS DATA" TO INTERFACE 
 
In the 2K RAM of the interface, locations 1024 through 1535 are accessible
from the external computer, but are not used for events or any other
purpose by the interface.  In the CP290 these are referred to as the
locations for graphics data.  For each of 256 possible units, the memory
locations could be used to indicate (under control of an external program)
the on/off condition of a unit, or the type of unit it is (possibly an
index to a graphics icon).  This command writes data from the computer two
bytes at a time to these memory locations in the interface. 
 
Command syntax (computer to interface): 
 
        bytes 0-15:     1111 1111 - synchronization
                16:     0000 0011 - command 3 
                17:     AAAA AAA0 - LSB of data address
                18:     0000 0AAA - MSB of data address
                19:     GGGG GGGG - data byte 0
                20:     GGGG GGGG - data byte 1
                21:     CCCC CCCC - sum of bytes 19 and 20
 
                where   0000 0AAA AAAA AAAA(bytes 18 and 17) =
 
                        0000 0100 0000 0000 for data pair 0
                        0000 0100 0000 0010 for data pair 1
                        ... (increases by 2 for each subsequent data pair)
 
                        GGGG GGGG - can be anything relevant to the
                                        external program, since this data
                                        is not used by the interface 
 
Return (interface to computer): 
 
        bytes 0-5:      1111 1111 - synchronization
                6:      0000 000X - interface status
 
 
COMMAND 4:  GET CLOCK TIME AND BASE HOUSE CODE FROM INTERFACE 
 
This command reads the time from the internal interface clock and also gets
the current base house code.  It is an innocuous way of testing for the
presence of the interface, and to see if it has lost its memory since the
last time events were downloaded to it.  If there is no reply to this
command after several seconds, the computer could assume that the interface
was not (properly) connected. 
 
Command syntax (computer to interface): 
 
        bytes 0-15:     1111 1111 - synchronization
                16:     0000 0100 - command 4 
 
Return (interface to computer): 
 
        bytes 0-5:      1111 1111
                6:      0000 000X - interface status
                7:      00mm mmmm - minute (0-59) 
                8:      000h hhhh - hour (0-23) 
                9:      0ddd dddd - bitmapped days Sun - Mon 
               10:      HHHH 0000 - base house code
               11:      CCCC CCCC - sum of bytes 7-10
 
 
COMMAND 5:  GET TIMER EVENTS FROM INTERFACE
 
This command requests the interface to send to the computer the events that
it has stored in its memory. 
 
Command syntax (computer to interface): 
 
        bytes 0-15:     1111 1111 - synchronization
                16:     0000 0101 - command 5
 
Return (interface to computer): 
 
        bytes 0-5:      1111 1111 
                6:      0000 000X - interface status
                for( event = 0 ; event < 128 ; event = event+1 ) 
                {
                   if( event is not erased )
                   {
                         7:     NNNN MMMM - mode 
                         8:     0ddd dddd - bitmapped days Sun - Mon 
                         9:     000h hhhh - hour 0-23
                        10:     00mm mmmm - minute 0-59
                        11:     VVVV VVVV - bitmapped unit codes 1-8
                        12:     UUUU UUUU - bitmapped unit codes 9-16 
                        13:     HHHH 0000 - house code for this event
                        14:     LLLL FFFF - level and function 
                    }
                    else
                         7:     1111 1111 - indicates event in that
                                                location is erased
                }
        last byte:   CCCC CCCC - sum of all bytes for valid events
                                        starting with byte 7; does not
                                        include the 1111 1111 for locations
                                        where event has been erased
 
 
COMMAND 6:  GET "GRAPHICS DATA" FROM INTERFACE 
 
This command requests the interface to send the "graphics data" that it has
stored in its memory.  See COMMAND 3b above.  Graphics data is not used in
any way by the interface.
 
Command syntax (computer to interface): 
 
        bytes 0-15:     1111 1111 - synchronization
                16:     0000 0110 - command 6
 
Return (interface to computer): 
 
        bytes 0-5:      1111 1111 
                6:      0000 000X- status
                for( unit = 0 ; unit < 256 ; unit = unit+1 ) 
                {
                   if( graphics data for unit has been stored )
                   {
                        7:      GGGG GGGG
                        8:      GGGG GGGG
                   } 
                   else
                        7:      1111 1111
                }
        last byte:      CCCC CCCC - sum of all data pairs for all units
                                        starting with byte 7; excludes the
                                        single 1111 1111s in cases where
                                        data for that unit has not been
                                        stored
 
COMMAND 7:  DIAGNOSTIC 
 
This command tells the interface to run a self-check on its hardware and
firmware.  Pin 4 on the interface goes low for 10 seconds; this may
generate extraneous characters that are detected by the attached computer.
At the end of this time, the interface sends its status if it can.  Note
that this command will scramble or clear any data stored in the interface. 
 
Command syntax (computer to interface):
 
        bytes 0-15:     1111 1111 
                16:     0000 0111 - command 7 
 
Return (interface to computer): 
 
        bytes ?:        extraneous characters for 10 seconds 
            0-5:        1111 1111 - synchronization
              6:        0000 000T - test status 
 
             where 0000 000T = 0 - interface is OK
                               1 - interface has a fault
 
 
KEYBOARD COMMANDS
 
If X10 commands are sent using the keys on the top of the CP290, the
interface will send a report to the computer so it can keep track of the
status of units. 
 
Report (interface to computer):
 
              0-5:      1111 1111 - synchronization
                6:      0000 000X - interface status
                7:      HHHH FFFF - house code and function
                8:      UUUU UUUU - unit codes bitmapped 9-16
                9:      VVVV VVVV - unit codes bitmapped 1-8
               10:      HHHH 0000 - base house code
               11:      CCCC CCCC - sum of bytes 14-17 
 
                where FFFF is the function return code described for
                        Command 1 (SEND COMMAND DIRECT)
 
 
TIMED EVENTS
 
When the CP-290 sends X10 commands in accordance with an event programmed
into it, it will send a report to the computer so the computer can keep
track of the status of units.  This report is in the same format as the
report for keyboard commands described above.
 
<FAQ SECTION 5>
 
SECTION 5:  MODIFICATIONS TO X10 HARDWARE
=========================================
 
WARNING:  Modifying X10 hardware as described in this section will void the 
warranty of the hardware.  Any modifications you do are at your own risk 
and the results are entirely your own responsibility.  You may end up 
damaging the hardware beyond use.  Remember, X10 devices are connected 
directly to the power line, and can kill you.  If you feel uncomfortable 
about any of this, don't do it. The modifications in this section have been 
tried by one or more people.  They may not work for you, due to variation 
in technical skill, or variation in X10 equipment lots.  Again, you are on 
your own; use at your own risk! 
 
 
Q501.  How do I modify appliance modules for momentary operation?
 
A501.  Normally appliance modules turn on and stay on in response to an ON 
command, and off in response to an OFF command. In response to an ON 
command appliance modules modified as described in this section will pulse 
on then off twice, returning to the off position. 
 
Procedure:
 
        1.  Make sure module is off, unplug it and then take cover off. 
 
        2.  Locate 330K resistor below the IC chip.  Remove it. 
 
        3.  Reassemble and test the module. 
 
 
The module clicks twice because each X10 command is issued twice.  Thus the 
two commands causes two on/off cycles.  If you would like the module to be 
normally on, make sure that the module was left on before you start the 
mod. 
 
 
Q502.  How do I add local dimming capability to wall switch modules? 
 
A502.  There are X10 wall switches with local dimming capability, but these 
are not as widely available and reasonably priced as the X-10 WS467.  This 
switch has a local on/off toggle and a slide button to lock it off.  The 
light it controls can be dimmed only from a remote X10 transmitter. 
 
The difference in circuitry between the switches with and without local 
dimming capability is minor.  Those with local dimming capability have a 
jumper wire where those without local dimming have a resistor and 
capacitor.  To convert a switch without local dimming to one with local 
dimming, you will need to remove the resistor and capacitor and replace 
them with a wire.  You will need  a jeweler's flat-blade screwdriver, a 
soldering iron, and a desoldering bulb or solder-up wick.  You may find 
needle nose pliers to be helpful as well. 
 
Procedure: 
 
        1.  Make sure the switch is functioning properly before starting. 
 
        2.  Take the module apart all the way.  Using the screwdriver, 
press down on the tabs at the four corners of the back cover, and pop the 
cover off. Be careful not to break the tabs. Remove the circuit board from 
the case by prying the side of the case away from the side of the board 
with the screwdriver far enough so that the PCB can clear the tabs which 
hold it in place. As the PCB comes out, be careful not to lose the small 
metal tab or the tiny spring-loaded rod which form part of the cutoff 
switch. Also remove the plastic piece which holds the cutoff switch 
assembly in place; removing the switch assembly now will make it easier to 
reassemble the switch properly later. The following is a crude ASCII 
diagram of the component side of the WS467 PC board, showing relative 
locations of various components. 
 
 
 
 |---------------------------------|
 |                                 |          TRIAC
 |                                 |            /
 |                                 |          /
 |                                 |        /   Notes: The WS467 has a small
 |                                 |      /     1/4 watt resistor soldered
 |                                 |    /       between holes 1 and 2, as
 | |---------------|               |  /         well as an electrolytic
 | |     I C       |           |-| |/           capacitor soldered between
 | |---------------|  o 1      | |/|            holes 3 and 4. Remove these
 |                2 o          |-| |            components and solder a
 |                    o            |            jumper wire between holes
 |                   3   o         |            1 and 3 to restore local
 |                      4          |            dimming.
 |                                 |
 |                                 |
 |                                 |
 |                                 |
 |   (Other circuitry omitted      |
 |     for clarity.)               |
 |                                 |
 |---------------------------------|
 
          WS467 PC Board
          Component Side
 
        3.  Once the switch has been disassembled and the PCB removed from 
the case, examine the component side of the board closely while referring 
to figure 1. Locate the small electrolytic capacitor and 1/4 watt resistor 
located just below and to the right of the IC on the board. They share a 
common connection.  Note that there is probably a larger 1/2 watt resistor 
in close proximity to the correct one - make sure you pick the right 
resistor. Now flip the board over and locate the 4 pads to which these two 
components are soldered. After warming up your soldering iron, use the 
solder wick or desoldering bulb to remove the solder from those pads, and 
remove the components from the board. NOTE: you could also simply cut the 
components off the board, leaving the lead stubs soldered in place, but 
desoldering the components will result in a much neater job. 
 
        4.  Again referring to the diagram in figure 1, install a small 
jumper wire between holes 1 and 3. Solder the wire to the pads on the foil 
side of the PCB. 
 
        5.  Reassemble the case, pop the circuit board back in, and pop the 
back cover on. Turn the switch over and look closely into the hole where 
the cutoff switch assembly fits. There you will see a pair of small metal 
protrusions as well as a shorter metal contact area. Replace the small 
metal tab into its position between the two taller metal protrusions, 
positioned so that the other end of the metal tab can contact the shorter 
metal contact area. Pop the cutoff switch assembly back into place, making 
sure that neither the tiny spring-loaded rod nor the metal tab fall out 
while you do so. 
 
        6.  Install the switch in the wall, and test normal operations 
(local on/off control, remote on/off/dim control, and the function of the 
cutoff switch). 
 
        7.  Finally, test the local dimming function: Press and hold the 
button on the switch. The light will come on, and then slowly cycle through 
a bright-to-dim-to-bright sequence. Release the button when the desired 
level of lighting is achieved. A quick tap on the button will turn the 
light on and off. 
 
 
Q503.  How do I modify the maxi-controller to accommodate more than 16 
units? 
 
A503.  The maxi-controller controls 16 units on a single house code. For 
those of applications with more than 16 units (and the thoughts of grouping 
units together or glueing a dime to the house code select slot aren't that 
appealing), a maxi controller can be made to control an alternate house 
code with the addition of a momentary contact pushbutton. 
 
The following procedure modifies the maxi-controller to use house code I 
normally and control house code K with the push of a button. 
 
Procedure: 
 
        1.  Open the maxi-controller.  There is no need to remove the 
circuit board. 
 
        2.  Install a miniature normally open momentary contact push button 
switch (e.g. RS 275-1571A) in a hole *carefully* drilled in the back of the 
top piece of the case so the switch will stick out the back when all is 
done).  Avoid the components and the mounting post.  Position it roughly 
behind the red LED on the Powerhouse brand of the maxi. Another way to 
describe its location: If you have the standard label 1-16 in position, the 
button goes behind approximately 12 (maybe a bit towards 11). 
 
        3.  Using a short jumper wire, solder one post of the switch to pin 
7 of the IC (GI 8417) and the other lead to pin 10. Use as little heat on 
the IC pins as possible to get a good solder without destroying it. 
 
        4.  Reassemble making sure nothing is shorting (jumper leads, 
etc.). 
 
        5.  Set house code rotary to position I and test units on house 
code I. To operate house code K, push in pushbutton and hold it while 
selecting the unit(s) and the operation (on,off,dim,bright,all lights on, 
or all units off). 
 
Note that the pins 7 to 10 mod will also allow you to control house codes 
J/L, H/F, G/E, B/D, A/C, P/N, or O/M by changing the rotary switch. 
 
Untried variations:  Using the chart below, you could connect via 
pushbutton pins 7 and either 8, 9, 10, or 11 alternatively or more than one 
if necessary to produce a desired combination. If you absolutely had to 
produce a house code alternative where you need to turn a 1 into 0 instead, 
you could use a normally closed pushbutton and cut a trace. 
 
Maxi controller with GI 8417 IC (can jumper a "1" from pin 7)
 
 PIN     8   9   10  11
 ---    --  --   --  --
 
 J       0   0   0   0
 I       0   0   0   1
 L       0   0   1   0
 K       0   0   1   1
 H       0   1   0   0
 G       0   1   0   1
 F       0   1   1   0
 E       0   1   1   1
 B       1   0   0   0
 A       1   0   0   1
 D       1   0   1   0
 C       1   0   1   1
 P       1   1   0   0
 O       1   1   0   1
 N       1   1   1   0
 M       1   1   1   1
 
 
Q504.  How do I modify the mini-controller to control more units?
 
A504.  This answer should be read in conjunction with the instructions for 
modifying the maxi-controller in Q503. 
 
Unfortunately, the truth table for the mini-controller appears to be all 
different for that for the maxi-controller, and there isn't a real good 
place to mount the pushbutton.  Besides, if you really need to control a 
bunch of units, you wouldn't have the mini-controller in the first place. 
 
However, the following seems to apply:
 
Mini controller with 8925 IC (can jumper a "1" from pin 3)
 
 PIN     5   6    7   8
 ---    --  --   --  --
 
 M       0   0   0   0
 O       0   0   0   1
 E       0   0   1   0
 G       0   0   1   1
 C       0   1   0   0
 A       0   1   0   1
 K       0   1   1   0
 I       0   1   1   1
 N       1   0   0   0
 P       1   0   0   1
 F       1   0   1   0
 H       1   0   1   1
 D       1   1   0   0
 B       1   1   0   1
 L       1   1   1   0
 J       1   1   1   1
 
 
Q505.  How do I modify the mini-controller to control all units for a 
single housecode (i.e. all "bands")? 
 
A505.  The X10 mini controller is capable of addressing four of the sixteen 
X10 unit codes.  A slide switch on the controller allows the user to select 
the "band" of units 1-4 or 5-8.  A simple modification allows the selection 
of two additional bands, 9-12 and 13-16.  This covers the entire spectrum 
of X10 units accessible from a single house-code. 
 
This modification applies to the "Radio Shack" branded mini controller, 
number 61-2677B.  By visual inspection of the circuit board and internal 
components, it appears that this modification also applies to "Stanley" 
branded mini controller number 360-3090.  It appears that both of these 
units were manufactured for X10 for sale under the distributers' own brand 
name, and are essentially identical inside. 
 
There was an earlier model of the mini controller that was available from 
Radio Shack, and possibly other sources.  Legend has it that the old unit 
was even easier to modify for access to all four bands.  In fact, one 
legend says that the unit was equipped with a four-band switch, two 
positions of which were simply blocked off by the plastic bezel sticker 
applied over the plastic cabinet.  I don't know what the truth is, not 
having one of the old mini controllers to study.  What I do know is that 
this modification was not developed for the old controller. 
 
The old mini controller had four switches for the unit codes, plus 
individual switches for ON, OFF, DIM, BRIGHT, ALL LIGHTS ON, and ALL UNITS 
OFF.  To turn on unit three, one would depress two switches:  3 and ON. 
 
The new mini controller does not have ON and OFF switches apart from the 
unit codes. Instead it has an ON and OFF switch for each of the four unit 
codes. (In the case of the Radio Shack unit, there are four rocker 
switches, up for ON and down for OFF.  The Stanley unit has individual 
switches for 1 ON, 1 OFF, 2 ON, 2 OFF, etc.)  Pressing one of these 
switches sends both the unit code and the ON or OFF command.  The user can 
then follow up by using the DIM or BRIGHT switches, or the ALL LIGHTS ON or 
ALL UNITS OFF switches. 
 
Procedure: 
 
        1.  Unplug the unit and open the case by removing the four 
phillips-head screws. Put both halves of the case in a safe place.  When 
handling the printed circuit board, orbserve the usual precautions for 
static-sensitive devices. 
 
        2.  Locate the place where the existing "band" switch is located.  
This is nothing more than a plastic handle on a metal slider that runs in a 
trough molded into the top part of the case.  The slider makes contact with 
three large pads on the printed circuit board. 
 
        3.The hardest part of the modification is finding a new switch to 
use for the four-position band selector!  It is possible to use a two-pole 
four-throw rotary switch.  I'll let you figure out how to do the encoding 
if you decide on that.  I found a suitable switch in my junk-box and 
mounted it in a position that replaces the old band switch.  This entailed 
some amount of cutting and gluing on the plastic case.  I will assume that 
you are doing the same.  Find a small slide switch that has four positions.

It should have two rows of five contacts.  As the switch is moved, it 
should short two adjacent contacts at a time.  Looking into the pins in the 
back of the switch, one should see the following connection pattern for 
each switch position: 
 
     position 1         position 2         position 3         position 4 
   +-------------+    +-------------+    +-------------+    +-------------+
   |1--2  3  4  5|    |1  2--3  4  5|    |1  2  3--4  5|    |1  2  3  4--5|
   |             |    |             |    |             |    |             |
   |A--B  C  D  E|    |A  B--C  D  E|    |A  B  C--D  E|    |A  B  C  D--E|
   +-------------+    +-------------+    +-------------+    +-------------+
 
Physically, the switch should fit in pleasingly with the rest of the panel. 
This usually means that it should be rather small.  This is a good time to
decide exactly where to put it.  The most logical place is directly in place
of the existing band switch.  This may require hacking away part of the
printed circuit board.
 
        5.  Orient the printed circuit board in front of you, such that the 
foil side is down, and the power cord attaches to the board on your left.  
The big chip should be slightly right of center, and most of the components 
will be near your belly.  Make sure that the chip has 24 pins, and is 
marked 78567.  To your right of the chip is a small metal-can transformer.  
Further right and up, should be an electrolytic capacitor, around 1000 mFd 
at 25 V.  The capacitor's negative lead is well marked.  Locate the 
positive lead. 
 
        6.  If the new switch does not physically replace the old one, 
disable the old switch by removing the slider from it. 
 
        7.  Looking into the back of the switch, wire pin A to 4 to IC pin 
11.  Wire switch pin B to 3 to D to the + lead of the capacitor.  Wire 
switch pin C to IC pin 12.  The result should look something like this: 
 
      .------------. 
      |            |
      |  +---------|---+
      |  |1  2 _3_ 4  5|
      |  |    /   \    |
      |---A  B  C  D  E|
      |  +------|--|---+
      |         |  |
      |         |  `-----> to capacitor +
      |         `--------> to IC, pin 12
      `------------------> to IC, pin 11
 
 
The intent of this circuit is to impress one of four binary codes on the 
IC's pins 11 and 12.  This tells the controller chip which band of X10 
units to address.  The logic levels to be presented to the chip are 
provided by dead air and the + lead of the electrolytic capacitor.  The 
truth table is: 
 
   unit     switch     switch    |  pin 11   pin 12 
   band     position   shorting  |  sees     sees
   -----    --------   -------- -+- ------   -----
    1-4        1       1&2, A&B  |  cap      air
    5-8        2       2&3, B&C  |  air      cap
    9-12       3       3&4, C&D  |  cap      cap
   13-15       4       4&5, D&E  |  air      air
 
 
        7a.  Rotary switch option.  This version is untested, but should 
work.  It is for rotary switch lovers out there.  Get a 2-pole 4-throw 
rotary switch and wire it as follows: 
 
        .------------------------------> to capacitor + 
        |     |              |  |    
        1_ 2  3  4        1_ 2  3  4
        |\                |\
          \- - - - - - - - -\
           \                 \
            O                 O
            |                 |
            |                 `--------> to IC, pin 12
            `--------------------------> to IC, pin 11
 
You probably want to avoid binary or BCD-encoded thumbwheel switches because
the base station coding scheme is offset slightly from normal binary coding
(and the switch output).  You would have to relabel the switch positions,
not
to mention blocking off the unused positions.
 
        8.  Put the box back together.  Screw it shut again before applying 
power.  Try it out. 
 
(dennisg@filenet.com) 
 
 
Q506.  How do I modify the mini-controller to control only units 9-12 or 
13-16? 
 
A506.  Read in conjunction with Q505.
 
Proecedure: 
 
        1.  Open mini-controller and pull back the circuit board. Be 
careful not to let all the switch tops fall out. 
 
        2.  Locate the three pads underneath the slide switch. Notice that 
the unmodified mini selects 1-4 or 5-8 depending on whether the center 
position makes connection with one side or the other. 
 
        3.  To modify the mini to control only units 9-12, solder a jumper 
such that all three pads connect together. 
 
        4.  To modify the mini to control units 13-16, simply remove the 
slide switch. 
 
Untried variation #1: If you solder the jumper as to not interfere with the
slide switch, then you could jumper just one side and then use the slide to
select 1-4 or 9-12 or .. jumpering the other side, 5-8 or 9-12.
 
Untried variation #2: If you mangle the slide switch so that it only has
the contacts on one side or the other, you could use the slide switch to
select 1-4 or 13-16, or .. removing the other side 5-8 or 13-16. A possible
problem here is that the half-mangled slide switch may not "sit right".
 
 
Q507.  How do I modify the mini-controller for momentary operation? 
 
A507.  The following answer comes from oadebc@robots.gsfc.nasa.gov:
 
Description:
 
When a Mini-Controller is modified as below, your key presses are undone as 
soon as you release the key.  Thus pressing 'on' and then releasing, sends 
an 'ON' and then a 'OFF' command.  This is also true for 'All Unit' 
commands.  This mod only works on model 'MC460' Mini-Controllers, and not 
the 'MC260' (If anyone knows how to identify the two, please post). 
 
Procedure: 
 
Inside the mini controller, connect pin 3 and 14 of the black IC marked 
78567.  You may want to make the connection with a little switch to return 
the controller to normal mode. 
 
 
Q508.  How do I repair a "blown" X10 lamp module? 
 
A508.  X10 lamp modules have a bad habit of dying premature deaths.  Most 
of the time, the problem can be traced back to a bad triac.  Why the triac 
is the weak link has been debated hotly.  It is possible to "resurrect" the 
module by simply replacing the triac.  Caution must be stressed here; there 
are a lot of triacs available, but whichever one you use must have an 
isolated tab.  The most universally available replacement is from Radio 
Shack, part number 276-1000 [Does this part actually have an isolated 
tab?], or Digi-Key part number L4008L6-ND.  In addition to having an 
isolated tab, it also has a higher rating than the original one, so will be 
less likely to fail. 
 
If you don't know a triac from a mouse trap, you'd better not try to 
replace it.
 
 
Q509.  How do I defeat local control of lights and appliances? 
 
A509.  A standard appliance or lamp module will turn itself on if the power 
switch on the device it is connected to is switched on.  This provides 
local control.  This is not always desirable, however.  Local control 
depends on the current draw through the module; if it exceeds a certain 
value, the device turns on.  Some devices (compact fluorescent lamps, for 
example) seem to have low impedance and keep switching themselves on even 
when explicitly turned off.  This local control can be disabled for 
appliance modules.  
 
Procedure:  
 
        Inside each module, there is an integrated circuit labeled "PICO-
570" or "PICO-536C"  Cut the lead that goes from pin 7 of this integrated 
circuit to the hot AC connection. 
 
 
Q510.  How do I add a relay output to the power horn?
 
A510.  The following answer comes from oadebc@robots.gsfc.nasa.gov:
 
Description:  
 
I have always wanted to add a relay output to the power horn.  With this 
feature, I can switch on a more powerful outside bell, an autodialer, or 
any other load upon detection of a violation. When I opened the case, I was 
surprised to learn that unit was already designed to do just that, except 
the necessary components have been left out.  There even are two holes in 
the back of the unit for screw terminals that are covered by a small 
sticker.  After tracing the circuit, I selected some replacements listed 
below. 
 
Procedure:  
 
The procedure requires the installation of eight components that should be 
commonly available. Open the case by removing the four screws in the back. 
On the PC board you will see near the bottom (side away from the AC plug) 
the silk screening for the relay output portion. Install the following 
components (all resistors 1/4 watt with exceptions): 
 
  R30 - 1Kohm (1/2Watt)
  R32 - 12Kohm
  R33 - 12Kohm
  R34 - 200Kohm
  R35 - 200Kohm
  D16 - Any Silicon Diode (not Zener)
  RL1 - Your relay (see note below)
  TR8 - 2N2222 Switching Transistor
 
For the screw terminals, you can use a set taken from an unused (X-10) 
alarm sender, or you can decide on your own interface.  The relay could be 
tricky.  I was lucky and was able to find a relay that fit after some 
modifications.  It does appear to me however that Radio Shack sells micro 
relays that would fit. 
 
Operation:  
 
The relay will close as soon as the horn starts blaring (and vise versa).  
Your current rating will certainly depend on the relay you choose.  If you 
are so inclined, you could even disconnect the piezo horns, and have a unit 
that silently turns on a load upon an alarm violation. 
 
Changing the reaction time of the Horn:
 
After some poking around I found out specifically how the Horn is 
triggered.  A capacitor is charged a small amount every time an ALL UNITS 
OFF command is received after an ALL UNITS ON command.  When this voltage 
reaches 7.0 Volts, the Horn starts a-blarin'.  This usually takes 20 
seconds after the alarm system is triggered, an amount that I think is just 
too long.  The capacitor that determines the reaction time is C13, located 
near pin 18 of the 78566 chip.  The 'stock' value of this capacitor is 
22uF, and it takes five transitions of the command to trigger the horn.  By 
using a 10uF capacitor this amount is reduced to only two needed 
transitions.  Summary: 
 
        Standard Horn (22uF) trigger time is 20 seconds.
        Modified Horn (10uF)                 8  seconds.
 
The quick reaction time will hopefully cause the intruder to stop his break 
in attempt sooner. 
 
Effects of Combining the two Mods:
 
If you want the load that is switched by the relay be flashed on and off, 
you can combine the two modifications.  The on to off duty cycle can be 
changed by changing C13.  Actually what I have done is to socket C13, so 
that I can open the case and easily change the reaction time of the horn. 
 
Conclusion:
 
I (oadebc@robots.gsfc.nasa.gov) am curious to know if anyone finds this mod 
useful.  Please let me know any questions or comments.  Have fun, and I 
will trust that you will not hold me responsible for your failures (only 
for your successes 8-). 
 
</FAQ BODY>
 
</FAQ>


Harrison Cooper 
Sr. Hardware Engineer
Evans & Sutherland Computer Corp
http://www.es.com




file: /Techref/io/serial/x10/x10.txt, 217KB, , updated: 1999/6/4 09:30, local time: 2024/4/19 01:17,
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