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'[PIC] [OT] OK to operate at the absolute max ratin'
2008\07\14@172601 by Carl Denk

I think this thread belongs at [OT], and am duplicate posting there.

The factor of safety on structures (not necessarily bridges) is commonly
1.4 on the dead load, 1.7 on the live load. These are there to account
for both variability of  dimensions of members, actual strength
differing from the assumed design strength and variability of the
loading.There may be a factor of 0.9  or 0.85 applied to allowable
stresses to allow for certain types of loading.

Fatigue may add additional factors depending on number of repetitions
of stress reversals. This is why a bridge may be overladed for a heavy
load, where the authorities log the overloads and may not allow further
overweight loads sometime in the future. The overweight load may be
limited to certain loads, or other loads (regular traffic) may be
stopped during the transit of the bridge. Railroads may add empty cars
to each end of a heavy load, and I have seen recently where an empty car
was located between heavy locomotives.

Tamas Rudnai wrote:
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