Figure 6.1a shows a complete diagram of an operational amplifier. A more common version of the diagram is shown in figure 6.1b, where missing parts are assumed to exist. The inverting input means that the output signal will be 180 out of phase with the input applied to this terminal. On the diagram V (DC) and V (DC). is typically, but not necessarily, V. The positive and negative voltages are necessary to allow the amplification of both positive and negative signals without special biasing.

**Figure 6.1:** a) Complete diagram of an operational
amplifier and b) common diagram of an operational amplifier.

For a linear amplifier (cf. a differential amplifier) the open-loop gain is

The open-loop gain can be approximated by the transfer function

where is the DC open-loop gain and is the transfer function of a passive low-pass filter. We can write

where and Hz.

Two conditions must be satisfied for linear operation:

- The input voltage must operate within the bias voltages:

. - For no clipping the output voltage swing must be restricted to

.

Tue Jul 13 16:55:15 EDT 1999